Read these two tracts: "The African Servant," by Legh Richmond; "Earthly Care...," by H. B. Stowe
Read "Introduction," "Preface to Second Edition," "Sections 4 and 8"
Read Chapter 1
And read the following newspaper commentaries: Courier & Inquirer, National Era (1), New York Tribune, Neal's Saturday Gazette, Knickerbocker Magazine, The Union Magazine, The National Era (2).
Most of Stowe's readers would have "heard" at least most of the hymns sung by Tom and other slaves in her novel. If you haven't heard them lately, or at all, make sure you're at a computer with a high speed connection to the web and listen to at least the first couple of them on this page.
If you've never read Bunyan's book, one of the central texts of 19th century American culture, you should read at least Pilgrim's Progress: Excerpt 1.
If you want to see more on Victorian American Christianity, help yourself.