Secondary Sources

The Ordeal of Mark Twain, by Van Wyck Brooks (New York: Dutton, 1920)

Mark Twain's America, by Bernard DeVoto (Boston: Little, Brown, 1932)

Mark Twain At Work, by Bernard DeVoto (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1942)
            Reviewed by Alex Applebaum

Sam Clemens of Hannibal, by Dixon Wecter (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1952)
            Reviewed by Karen Stenson

Mark Twain and Southwestern Humor, by Kenneth Lynn (Boston: Little, Brown, 1959)
            Reviewed by Jamie Plummer

Mark Twain and Huck Finn, by Walter Blair (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1960)

Mark Twain on the Lecture Circuit, by Paul Fatout (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1960)

Mark Twain: The Development of a Writer, by Henry Nash Smith (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1962)
            Reviewed by Matt Kramer

Mark Twain's Humor: The Image of a World, by Pascal Covici, Jr. (Dallas: Southern Methodist Univ. Press, 1962)

Mark Twain: The Fate of Humor, by James M. Cox (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1966)

Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain, by Justin Kaplan (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966)

The Trouble Begins at Eight: Mark Twain's Lecture Tours, by Fred W. Lorch (Ames: Iowa State Univ. Press, 1968)

Mark Twain: God's Fool, by Hamlin Hill (New York: Harper & Row, 1973)
            Reviewed by Jesse Walcott

Our Mark Twain, by Louis Budd (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1983)

The Authentic Mark Twain: A Literary Biography, by Emerson Everett (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1984)
            Reviewed by Linda Grinaker

In Bad Faith: The Dynamics of Deception in Mark Twain's America, by Forrest G. Robinson (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1986)
            Reviewed by Catherine Strotmeyer

Mark Twain's Languages: Discourse, Dialogue and Linguistic Variety, by David R. Sewell (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1987)

Dark Twins: Imposture and Identity in Mark Twain's America, by Susan Gillman (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1989)
            Reviewed by George Morrison

Mark Twain's Pudd'nhead Wilson: Race, Conflict, and Culture, ed. by Susan Gillman and Forrest G. Robinson (Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1990)
            Reviewed by Kerri Smith

Mark Twain: The Bachelor Years, by Margaret Sanborn (New York: Doubleday, 1990)

The Man Who Was Mark Twain, by Guy A. Cardwell (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1991)

Writing Huck Finn: Mark Twain's Creative Process, by Victor Doyno (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1991)

Getting to be Mark Twain, by Jeffrey Steinbrink (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1991)

Satire or Evasion? Black Perspectives on Huckleberry Finn, ed. by James S. Leonard, Thomas A. Tenney and Thaddeus M. Davis (Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1992)
            Reviewed by Janelle Visnich

Was Huck Black? Mark Twain and African-American Voices, by Shelley Fisher Fishkin (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993)
            Reviewed by Colleen Forshey

Mark Twain in the Company of Women, by Laura E. Skandera-Trombley (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1994)
            Reviewed by Greg Conner

Mark Twain, Culture, and Gender: Envisioning America Through Europe, by J.D. Stahl (Athens: Univ. of Georgia Press, 1994)
            Reviewed by Ashley Lombardi

Sentimental Twain: Samuel Clemens in the Maze of Moral Philosophy, by Gregg Camfield (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1994)

Acting Naturally: Mark Twain in the Culture of Performance, by Randall Knoper (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1995)
            Reviewed by Steve Lugar

Mark Twain on the Loose: A Comic Writer and the American Self, by Bruce Michelson (Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 1995)
            Reviewed by Scott Herman

"Littery Man": Mark Twain and Modern Authorship, by Richard S. Lowry (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1996)

The Courtship of Olivia Langdon and Mark Twain, by Susan K. Harris (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996)
            Reviewed by Kelly Richards

Lighting Out for the Territory, by Shelley Fisher Fishkin (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1997)
            Reviewed by Matt Thiel

Inventing Mark Twain: The Lives of Samuel L. Clemens, by Andrew Hoffman (New York: William Morrow, 1997)

Mark Twain's Ethical Realism, by Joe B. Fulton (Columbia: Univ. of Missouri Press, 1997)
            Reviewed by Tammar Laufer