pathetic fallacy – a literary critical term to describe the projection of human emotions onto natural or material phenomena, as when the Correspondent in Crane's "Open Boat" expresses a longing for the storm at sea to have compassion for his distress: "The wind had a voice in it as it came over the waves, and it was sadder than the end" (p. 292). A Romantic like Whitman would not have called this a "fallacy," but a genuine correspondence between nature and the self: "All [things] are written to me," he writes in "Song of Myself," "and I must get at what the writing means" (p. 38).

Plantation Tales – A specific variant of LOCAL COLOR fiction, stories about life in the South "befo' de Wah" were very popular with white American readers, North and South, during the last decades of the 19th century. Literary historians usually cite J. C. Harris' Uncle Remus: His Songs and Sayings (1880) as the first example of this type. By the time that C. W. Chesnutt wrote "The Goophered Grapevine," the definitive form of the plantation tale had been established by Thomas Nelson Page, whose "Mars Chan" first appeared in 1884. Set in the ante bellum South, these tales idealized "the old plantation" as a place where (white) men were chivalrous cavaliers, (white) women were beautiful ladies, and (black) slaves were all happy, a kind of Camelot that is now (as a later writer would put it) "gone with the wind."