American Politics 514                                                                                          Mr. Rhoads

Sex and Gender Differences: Biology,                                                                Fall 2005

Culture, Politics and Policy


Office Hours: Tuesdays 3:40-5:40 and by appointment

Phone Number: 924-7866



Course Description


This course will explore sex and gender differences and similarities from a variety of perspectives but with an emphasis on biological and evolutionary explanations.  The success of the course will be heavily dependent on thoughtful class discussion.  With that in mind, the principal requirements are designed to make our class-time together more fruitful.  These requirements are (1) regular attendance and thoughtful participation in class; (2) four to six short, unannounced quizzes [unexcused, missed quizzes will count as failures; however every student’s lowest grade (whether from a missed or a “taken” test) will count only one half as much as the other quizzes; e-mail me BEFORE class at if you can’t be there]; (3) two 7-10 page papers on the assigned reading for the day which will be due on the Monday before our Tuesday meeting at 3:30 [SHARP!] in the week before the paper topics are discussed.  Papers should be in hard copy and placed under my door at 244 Cabell Hall.  I will read the papers before we discuss the topic, and you and I will bring your arguments into our discussion.  Paper writers should spend some time thinking about how they can most effectively present the principal arguments of their paper to the class in 4 to 5 minutes.  There will be a heavy penalty for late papers. 



Thoughtful Class participation (including your class summary of your paper)          20%

Unannounced Quizzes                                                                                                40%

Two Short Papers                                                                                                        40%



Most of the reading for the course will be from a special collection of readings available at Brillig Books (7 Elliewood Avenue).  Brillig will also have copies of Tannen, Talking from Nine to Five, Rhoads, Taking Sex Differences Seriously, and Baron-Cohen, The Essential Difference. 





Schedule of Reading


Week 1 Introduction



Week 2 Masculinity/Femininity


I Differences and Their Sources


Udry, J. Richard. (1994). The Nature of Gender. Demography, 31, 561-573.

Browne, Kingsley. Biology at Work, Rutgers Univ Press, (2002) pp. 1-10.

Interview with Helena Cronin.

Rhoads. Taking Sex Differences Seriously, introduction, Ch. 2.

Baron-Cohen, Simon. The Essential Difference, Ch. 1-2, pp. 29-33, 38-47, 54-56, 87-91,

95-104, Ch. 9.

Hotz, Robert Lee. “Women Are Very Much Not Alike, Gene Study Finds,” Los Angeles

Times, 3/17/05.

Eagly, Alice H., Wendy Wood, and Mary C. Johannesen-Schmidt. “Social Role Theory

of Sex Differences and Similarities: Implications for the Partner Preferences of Women and Men,” The Psychology of Gender, pp. 269-282.

Gilmore, David D. Manhood in the Making: Cultural Concepts of Masculinity (New

Haven: Yale University Press, 1990), pp. 220-231.


II Differences and Culture


Miedzian, Myriam. Boys Will Be Boys (New York: Doubleday, 1991), pp. 79-95.

Blankenhorn, David. (November 1991). The Good Family Man: Fatherhood and the

Pursuit of Happiness in America. Institute for American Values Working Paper, W.P. 12, pp. 1-34.

Rosenfeld, Megan, “Games Girls Play: A Toy Chest Full of Stereotypes,” The

Washington Post (December 22, 1995), p. A1.


III The Unconnected Man


Heavey, Bill. “Point Well Taken,” Washington Post (June 5, 1996), p. C9.

Doonesbury Cartoon.

Crenshaw, Theresa. The Alchemy of Love and Lust (1996), pp. 140-144.

Tannen, Deboara. You Just Don’t Understand, pp. 176-179, 268-271.


Week 3 Sexuality


I Theory


Schmitt, David P., Todd K. Shackelford, and David M. Buss. “Are Men Really More

‘Oriented’ Toward Short-Term Mating Than Women?” Psychology, Evolution, and Gender 3(3), 12/01, pp. 211-39.

Cashdan, Elizabeth. (1996). “Women’s Mating Strategies.” Evolutionary Anthropology,

5(4), pp. 134-143.

Rhoads. Taking Sex Differences Seriously, Ch. 3.

Eagly, Alice H., and Wendy Wood. “Social Role Theory of Sex Differences and

Similarities: Implications for Partner Preferences of Women and Men” The Psychology of Gender, pp. 282-289.

Buss. Evolution of Desire (1994), 45-48.

Bailey, Kristen. “Sexual Double Standards May Have Social Roots,” The Cavalier Daily,

April 5, 2004.

Fisher, Helen. Anatomy of Love (1992), pp. 88-97.

Broder, Arndt and Natalia Hohmann. “Variations in Risk Taking Behavior Over the

Menstrual Cycle: An Improved Replication,” Evolution and Human Behavior24, 2003, pg. 391 [abstract].

Crenshaw, Theresa, M.D. The Alchemy of Love and Lust, (1996), pp. 120-125, 144-147,


Furlow, A. Bryant and Randy Thornhill. “The Orgasm Wars,” Human Sexuality, (1996)

pp. 55-57.

“Big Breasts and a Bogus Broadcast,” Washington Post, May 19, 1996.

Botting, Kate and Douglas. “Men Can Be Sex Objects Too!” Cosmopolitan, August


Cathy and Doonesbury cartoons.


II Policy


1.      Male/Female Relations Among Poor Americans

Wilson, James Q. The Marriage Problem (2002), pp. 155-157.

Rhoads. Taking Sex Differences Seriously, Ch. 4.

Britt, Donna “Sex, Courtship and the Hopes of Black Teenage Girls,” Washington

Post, 5/18/98.

Mansbridge, Jane. “Welfare Reform and Women’s Independence,” APSA Women’s

Section Newsletter, pp. 3-4.

Broder, David S. “An Unlikely Marriage Broker,” Washington Post, March 31, 2002.

Pierre, Robert. “States Consider Law Against Paternity Fraud.” Washington Post,

October 14, 2002.

“The Crisis n the Black Family,” The Family in American: New Research, Sept. 1997.

“Men, Women and Marriage,” Washington Post, December 5, 1993.

Raspberry, William. “Learning About boys From Elephants,” The Daily Progress,


Thomas, Adam and Isabel Sawhill. “For Richer or for Poorer,” Journal of Policy Analysis

and Management, Fall 2002, Vol 21, Number 41, p. 587.

Kotlowitz, Alex. “It Takes a Wedding,” New York Times, 11/13/02.

Wilcox, W. Bradford, “The Facts of Life & Marriage,” 1/05.

Gallagher, Maggie. “Kids Just Want a Two-Parent Family,” Universal Press Syndicate,


“The Marriage Experiment,” Washington Post editorial, 1/31/04.

Barbara Whitehead, “The War Between the Sexes,” The American Enterprise, May 1996,

pp. 25-27.


2.      Sex and Power

Huber, Peter. “Political Sex,” Forbes, October 24, 1994, p. 270.

Estrich, Susan. “Not a Victimless Crime,” Washington Post, September 2, 1996.

Paglia, Camille. “How Do You Handle a Hungry Man?” Salon Magazine, March 1997.

Ceaser, James. “In the Court of Sultan Bill,” The Weekly Standard, 2/23/98.

Morin, Richard. “Hail to the Philanders-in Chief,” Washington Post, 1998.

Dowd, Maureen. “In All His Feathered Glory,” New York Times, 7/6/98.

Golberg, Stephanie. “Greene is Sent out to Pasture,” WE news, 9/25/02.

Frase-Blunt, Martha. “The Sugar Daddies’ Kiss of Death,” Washington Post, October 6,

2002, p. B4.


3.      Sex and Close Military Quarters

Browne, Kingsley. (Winter 2002), “Women at War: An Evolutionary Perspective,”

Buffalo Law Review, Volume 29, Number 1, pp. 171, 191, 192.

“Advisory Panel Calls on Navy to Permit Women to Serve on Submarines,” AP story,

May 4, 2000.

Moloney, Daniel P. (February 2002), “Sex and the Married Missileer,” First Things,

February 2000, pp. 45-51.

Simons, Anna. (2001), “Women in Combat Units: It’s Still a Bad Idea,” Parameters,

Short excerpt.


Week 4:  Aggression/Competition/Risk-taking


I Theories of Aggression


Browne. Biology At Work, pp. 11-21.

Cashdan, Elizabeth. “Hormones, Sex and Status in Women,” Hormones and Behavior

(1995), pp. 354-355.

Rhoads, Taking Sex Differences Seriously, Ch. 6.

Lips, Hillary. Sex and Gender, (1997), pp. 112-120.

Goldberg, Steven. (1993), Why Men Rule: A Theory of Male Dominance, Chicago: Open

Court, pp. 64-73, 103-105, 110-113, 126-129, 148-149.

“Violent Behavior Ebbs After Classes,” Washington Post, (May 28, 1997), p. A9.

Harrington, Walter. “The Boys of Selby,” The Washington Post Magazine, June 23,

1985, pp. 9-22.


II Competitiveness, and Title IX


Gibbons, Shiela. “Sports News Shortchanges Female Players, Fans,” Women’s E-News

Today, 5/14/03.

Rhoads, Taking Sex Differences Seriously, Ch. 7.

Thompson, Bob. “My Girls Make a Vertical Leap,” The Washington Post, 3/8/98.

Goodman, Ellen. “A Winning Idea in Sports: a Level Playing Field,” Boston Globe (June

19, 1997) p. A17.

Marcus, Mary Brophy, “If You Let me Play: A Basketball or a Hockey Puck May Shatter

the Glass Ceiling,” U.S. News and World Report (October 27, 1997), pp. 88-90.

Goldberg, Debbie. “N.J. School Tackles a Political Football,” Washington Post, 9-8-02,

p. A3.

Raspberry, William. “The Way They Play on The Mean Streets,” Washington Post,


McGrath, Charles. “A Whole New Ballgame,” New York Times, 9/15/02.

Katz, Jackson. “The Price Women Pay for ‘Boys Being Boys,’” Seattle Post

Intelligencer, May 13, 2001.

Landenson, Michael. “The Real Bobby Knight,” The American Enterprise,

October/November 2002.

Lupica, Mike. “Bully for IU- Knight Firing Long Overdue,” New York Daily News.

“Frequent Participation in Sports” Data by Age and Sex, from Gaining Ground (1998),

pp. 4-5.

“More Coachable: Anson Dorrance has found the right approach to women players,”

Soccer Press.

Feller, Ben. “Colleges Gain New Tool to Comply With Anti-Discrimination Sports Law,”

Associated Press, 3/22/05.

Chapman, Steve. “In College Sports, Disparity is Not Discrimination,” Chicago Tribune,



III Domestic Violence


Buss, David. “Abuse” and “Jealousy” from The Evolution of Desire.

Flowers, Barri. “The Problem of Domestic Violence is Widespread,” in Swisher ed.,

Domestic Violence, pp. 10-19.

Goode, Erica, “Domestic Violence as a Serious Problem for Women,” in Swisher

ed., pp. 24-25.

Peterson, Karen. “Studies Shatter Myth About Abuse,” USA Today, 6/23/03.

Gwinn, Casey. “Harsher Penalties Can Reduce Family Violence,” pp. 160-164 in Bruno

Leone, ed. (1996) Family Violence, San Diego: Greenhaven.

Dinan, Sarah (research assistant-2001). “Summary of Domestic Violence Research,” pp.


Pence, Ellen and Michael Paymar. Education Groups for Men Who Batter: The Diluth

Model (1993), pp. 60-63, 72-81.

Satel, Sally L. “It’s Always His Fault,” Women’s Quarterly (Summer 1997), pp. 4-10.

Leo, John. “Mars to Venus: Back Off,” U.S. News and World Report, 5/11/98.


Week 5: Nurturing the Young


I Theory and Evidence


            1. Biology at Work?

Browne. Biology at Work, pp. 21-2.

Rhoads. Taking Sex Differences Seriously, Ch. 8.

Babchuk, Wayne A., Hames, Raymond B, and Thompson, Ross A. (1985), “Sex

Differences in the Recognition of Infant Facial Expressions of Emotion: The Primary Caretaker Hypothesis,” Ethology and Sociobiology 6, p. 89.

Frodi, Ann M., and Lamb, Michael E. (1978), “Sex Differences in Responsiveness to

Infants: A Developmental Study of Psychophysiological and Behavioral Responses,” Child Development 49, pp. 1182-1188.

Lips, Hilary. Sex and Gender, pp. 120-122.

Polatnick, M. Rivka. “Why Men Don’t Rear Children: A Power Analysis,” in Trebilcot

ed., Mothering Essays in Feminist Theory, pp. 21-37.

Cowan, Philip A., Cowan, Carolyn Pape, and Kerig, Patricia K. “Mothers, Fathers, Sons

and Daughters: Gender Differences in Family Formation and Parenting Style,” reports in Cowan, Philip et al., eds., Family, Self, and Society: Toward a new Agenda for Family Research (Hilsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993), pp. 168-173.

Witze, Alexandra. “Your Life Isn’t All That Changes When Baby Arrives,” Philadelphia

Inquirer, 1/9/05.


            2. Do Women Need Children?

Rollin, Betty. “Motherhood: Who Needs It?” The Norton Reader, pp. 534-544.

Huffman, Lori Kenyon. “The Incredible Vanishing Woman,” Washington Post,


Erickson, Martha Farrell and Enola G. Aird. “The Motherhood Study: Fresh Insights on

Mothers’ Attitudes and Concerns,” 6/8/05, Executive Summary.

Glusker, Anne. “Fertility Panic,” Washington Post, 12/14/97.

Trafford, “Women Can’t Beat the Clock,” Washington Post, 4/16/02.

Tousignant, Marylou. “A Whining, Dining Doll,” Washington Post, 1/19/99.

Eberstadt, Nicholas. “The New Trend: A Population Bust,” Washington Post, 3/18/01.

“Where’s Daddy?” Washington Post, 6/19/05.

Rhoads, Steven. “What Fathers Do Best- Hint: Not the Same Things as Mothers,” The

Weekly Standard 10(38), 6/20/05.


II Breast Feeding


“Breast Feeding Linked to IQ Gain,” Washington Post, 5/8/02.

“Study Links Cancer Rate, Time Spent Breast-Feeding,” The Daily Progress.

Trafford, Abigail. “What’s Good for the Baby May Guilt Trip the Mother,” Washington

Post, 12/9/97 and letters to the editor.

Galtry, Judith. “On Feminism, Breastfeeding and the Workplace,” (Sarah Dinan abstract

of article).


III Child Custody


Neely, Richard. “Barter in the Court,” The New Republic, February 10, 1986, pp. 13-15.

Goldstein, Leslie. “Can this Marriage Be Saved?” Feminist Jurisprudence (1992), pp. 24-



IV Day Care


Rhoads. Ch. 9, Day Care.

Belsky, Jay. “Quantity Counts,” Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, June 2002,

pp. 167-170.

“Child Aggressiveness Study Cites Day Care,” Washington Post, 4/19/01.

Fisch, Audrey. “Where’s Poppa,”, 8/5/02.

Goodman, Ellen. “Unlike Research Life…” The Daily Progress, 8/13/02.

Pearlstein, Steven. “Subsidies May Not Mean Parents Trade Up on Day Care,”

Washington Post, 2/5/98.

“Fear in the Blood,” The Family in America New Research, October 2003.

“Even Babies Prefer Moms at Home,” World Congress of Families Research Abstract of

the Week, 1/11/05.

“Mom’s Crazy Work Schedule,” World Congress of Families Research Abstract of the

Week, 1/24/05.

“Childcare Initiative Triggers ‘Mommy Wars’,” Washington Post, 1/26/98.

Williams, Marjorie. “Desk Top Day Care,” Washington Post, 12/13/00.

Cohn, D’Vera. “For Women, Work Gains Can Mean Home Losses,” Washington Post

(August 26, 1994), p. C1.

Marcus, Ruth. “What Mommies Want,” Washington Post, 5/11/03.


Week 6 Conversational Styles


I Theory


Tannen, Deborah. Talking from 9 to 5: Women and Men in the Workplace: Language,

Sex and Power (New York: Avon, 1994), pp. 14-15, 21-77, 88-91, 99-102,

107-131, 185-216, 236-292, 300-301, 310-317.

Brown, David. “Girls may Inherit Intuition Genes From Fathers,” Washington Post, June

12, 1997.

Roipe, Anne. “Talking Trouble,” Working Woman, October 1994.

“Stuff from Beyond,” e-mail from California State University, 1998.

Goodman, Ellen. “Guy Thing, Gal Thing,” Boston Globe, 3/11/95.

Ehrenreich, Barbara. “The Politics of Talking in Couples: Conversus Interruptus and

Other Disorders,” in Feminist Frameworks, Jagger and Rothenberg eds. (New

York: McGraw-Hill).

O’Neil, L. Peat. “Where the Girls Aren’t,” Washington Post, July 27, 1998.

Cathy cartoon.


II Men and Women in Prison


Collins, William C. and Andrew W. Collins. “Women in Jail: Legal Issues,” U.S.

Department of Justice, Dec. 1996, pp. 1-6.

Otis, Ginger. “Female Prisoners Sue State for Guard’s Sex Abuse,” Women’s e-news


Fletcher, Beverly, et al. Women Prisoners, 1993 [brief excerpt from review].

Brief excerpts from court commentary.

Rasche, Christine E. “Special Needs of the Female Offender,” Florida State Department

of Education, 1991, pp. 46-49, 54-57, 191.

Cranford, Susan and Rose Williams. “Critical Issues in Managing Female Offenders,”

Corrections Today, Dec. 1998, pp. 130-134.

Klein, Amy. “New Approaches Sought to Punish- and Reach- Wayward Girls,”

Washington Post, 1997.

Mishra, Raja. “Jessup’s New Warden Lets Prisoners Know Who’s Boss,” Washington

Post, Nov. 22, 1997.

Mason, Ann. “Gender-Specific Programming in Corrections: What’s the Point?” May 12,

1999, pp. 19-22.


Week 7  Courtship, Dating, Hooking up, and Cohabitation


I Theory


Buss, David. The Evolution of Desire, (1994) - Ch. 7, "Sexual Conflict."

Stanley, Scott M. “What is it With Men and Commitment, Anyway?” Keynote addres to

the 6th Annual Smart Marriages Conference, pp. 2-9.

Fein, Ellen and Sherrie Schneider. The Rules, 1995, Chs. 2-4, Rules 6, 13, 15, 17, 22, 29.

Commentary on The Rules:  Goodman and Walsh.

Hax, Carolyn. "The Rules for Men," Washington Post, 12/12/97, C5.

Barry, Dave. "Men vs. Women."


II Policy and Culture


1. Sexual Harassment

Twomey, Steve. "A Dear in the Headlights of Harassment," Washington Post, March 28,               1996.

Muggeridge, Anne Roche. "Give a Little Whistle!" Women's Quarterly, Winter 1995, pp. 9-10.

"Saying Yes and No to Sex," Washington Post, January 29, 1995.

Barry, Dave. "World Cups," The Washington Post Magazine, 2/27/94.

Siegel, Deborah. "Legal Definitions of Sexual Harassment Must Be Broad," What is          Sexual Harassment, 1992, pp. 46-53.

"The New Rules of Sexual Harassment," US News and World Report, July 6, 1998.

Browne. Biology at Work, pp. 191-214.

Weiss, Philip. "Don't Even Think About It (The Cupid Cops Are Watching)," in The New             York Times Magazine, May 3, 1998.

Young, Cathy. "Strange and Cautionary Tales of Sexual Harassment," in The Women's                  Freedom Network Newsletter, Summer 1996.

Risser, Rita. "The New Law of Sexual Harassment: Everything You Know is Wrong*,"

in Rethinking Sexual Harassment: A Women's Freedom Network Special Report,                1998.

Martin, Judith. "No Romance Please," Washington Post, 1995.

Mencimer, Stephanie. "When You Must Make a Lasting Impression," Washington              Post, April 19, 1998.


2. The Sexual Revolution

Adleson, Joseph. "Sex Among the Americans," Human Sexuality, pp. 37-41, 1997.

Fillion, Kate. "Lock Up Your Sons," Human Sexuality, 1997, pp. 195-199.

Levine, Judith. "The Sexual Revolution is Not Immoral," Sexual Values, pp. 37-43.

"Steps in the Mating Dance" and "A Proper Proposal," in Judith Martin, Miss Manners'      Guide to Raising Perfect Children.

Rissman, Barbara and Pepper Schwartz. “After the Sexual Revolution: Gender Politics in    

       Teen Dating,” Contexts, Spring 2002, pp. 16-23

Rhoads. Ch. 5.

UVA Resident Advisor on “Sex and Hooking Up at UVA” 2000.


3. Dating, Marriage, and the Career Woman

Schiffren, Lisa. "Is That All There Is?" Women's Quarterly, (Autumn 1997), pp. 4-8.

Clements, Marcelle and Lisa Kogan. "The Single Life," Elle.

Greistman, Ann. "Ring Anxiety," Glamour, Oct. 1999.

Dowd, Maureen. “Men Just Want Mommy,” The New York Times, 1/13/05 and letters


Shellenbarger, Sue. “The Latest Dating Headache: Women With High Salaries Wary of

Gold Diggers,” Wall Street Journal, 1/27/05.


Week 8    Marriage


I Marital Dynamics


Thompson, Linda and Alexis Walker. "Gender in Families: Women and Men in      Marriage, Work and Parenthood," Journal of Marriage and the Family, November, 1989, pp. 845-865.

Goleman, Daniel. Emotional Intelligence, pp. 140-141.

Booth, Alan and James M. Dabbs. "Testosterone and Men's Marriages," Social Forces,      December 1993, 72(2), pp. 472-473.

Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand, pp. 288-93.


II Marital Health and Happiness


Rovner, Sandy. "Healthtalk:  Heart Attacks & Wives," Washington Post (1983).

Glenn, Norval, et. al, “Why Marriage Matters: Twenty One Conclusions From the Social

Sciences,” American Experiment Quarterly, Spring 2002, pp. 34-40.

Musante, Linda, et. al.  (1990), “Individual and Cross-spouse Correlations of Perceptions of Family Functioning, Blood Pressure and Dimensions of Anger,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, [abstract only]. 

Reid, Brian. “Dying to Stay Home,” Washington Post, 9-10-02.

Okie, Susan. "Stress and Colds," Washington Post, December 10, 1996.

Elias, Marilyn. “Hugs Can Do a Heart Good Especially For Women,” USA Today,


Weisfeld, G.E. "Correlates of Satisfaction in British Marriages," Ethnology and      Sociobiology 1992, 13:125, pp. 139-42.

Cancian, Francesca M. "Gender Politics: Love and Power in the Private and Public

Spheres," Gender and the Life Course, (1985), ed. Alice Rossi, pp. 257-263.

Barnett, Rosalind and Grace K. Baruch. "Social Roles, Gender, and Psychological                         Distress," Gender and Stress, eds. Rosalind Barnett, Lois Biener and Grace                 Baruch (The Free Press,1987), pp. 131-141.

"Motherhood Today -- A Tougher Job, Less Ably Done," The Pew Research Center,                     1997.


III Should Law and Society Encourage Marriage ?


1. Cohabitation and Marriage

Child Trends. “More Unmarried Children Choosing to Live Together and Bear

Children,” 3-26-01.

Lyall, Sarah. “With the Blessing of Society, Europeans Opt not to Marry,” New York

            Times, 3-24-02.

Cohan. “Fragile Unions (with prior cohabitation),” 2002 excerpt. 

Glenn, Norval D. "A Critique of Twenty Family and Marriage and the Family        Textbooks," Family Relations, 1997, 46, pp.197-202.


            2. Policy and Commentary

Fletcher. “Degrees of Separation,” Washington Post, 6-25-02.

Carlson, Allan C. and David Blankenhorn. "The Wages of Wedlock," The Weekly

            Standard, November 17, 1997, pp. 16-17.

Fagan, Patterson, and Rector. “Marriage, (Marriage Education) and Welfare Reform,”

            Heritage Foundation Backgrounder, 10-25-02, pp. 1-2.

Starr, Alexandra. “Shotgun Wedding by Uncle Sam,” Business Week, 6-4-02.


III Childcare, Housework and Androgynous/Traditional Marriages


Nock, Steven L., and Margaret F. Brinig. "Weak Men and Disorderly Women: Divorce     and the Division of Labor," pp. 171-177, 180-190.

Mainardi, Pat. "The Politics of Housework," Jagger and Rothenberg, eds. Feminist                        Frameworks, pp. 19-23.

Browne. Biology at Work, pp. 133-41, 166-87.

Morse Roback, Jennifer. "Counter-Cultural Womanhood: Why I Am Not a Feminist,"       Oct. 18, 1997 speech to the Women's Freedom Network Annual Conference,            reprinted in Vital Speeches of the Day.

Goldberg, Steven. “Men and Women Should Not Share Domestic Responsibilities,” in

            Petrikin, ed., Male Female Roles, (1995) pp. 280-83.

“The Ancestory of Ozzie & Harriet,” The Family in America New Research, November


Schwartz, Pepper. "Peer Marriage," Marriage and the Family, pp. 93-97.

Deutsch, Francine. Halving it All: How Equally Shared Parenting Works, 1999, pp. 61-6.

Flanagan, Caitlin. “The Wifely Duty,” The Atlantic Monthly, Jan. 2003.

Mundy, Liza. “The Late Shift,” Washington Post, 3-17-02.

Belsky and Houston. “Sex Typing and Division of Labor As Determinants of Marital

            Change Across the Transition to Parenthood,” Journal of Personality and Social

            Psychology, 1986, abstract only.

Rivers and Barnett. “Housework Gap Closes for Dual Earner Couples,” Women’s e-

News, 11-26-05.

Washington Post Kaiser Poll on Changing Gender Roles—1998.



Week 9: Divorce


I Divorce


Betzig, Laura. “Causes of Conjugal Dissolution, A Cross-Cultural Study,” Current

Anthropology, 30(5), pp. 658-669.

Hurley, Dan. “Divorce Rate: It’s Not as High as You Think,” New York Times, 4/19/05.

“Catching a Divorce,” Washington Post, 8/4/02.

McGue, Matt and David T. Lykken. “Genetic Influence on Risk of Divorce,”

Psychological Science, Nov. 1992, p. 368.

Riessman, Catherine K. Divorce Talk, pp. 6-7, 24-39, 46-47, 52-59, 174-197.

Blumstein and Schwartz. American Couples: Money, Work, Sex, pp. 311-312.

“De Beauvoir and Divorce,” The Family in America New Research, June 2004.


II Policy


  1. American Attitudes Toward Divorce

Duenwald, Mary. “Two Portraits of Divorce,” New York Times, 3/26/02.

Zinmeister, Karl. “Marriage Matters,” The American Enterprise, May/June 1996, pp. 4-6.

Talbot, Margaret. “Love, American Style,” The New Republic, April 14, 1997.

Popenoe, David. “Murphy Brown, Redux,” The Weekly Standard, July 27, 1998.

Akers, Paul, “Walkaway Wives,” The American Enterprise, May/June 1996, p. 35.


  1. The Role of Government

Glendon, Mary Ann. The Transformation of Family Law, pp. 191-196.

Ruig-Franzia, Manuel. “In Miami, a Bus Stop for Broken Marriages,” Washington Post,

May 4, 2003.

“Grounds for Divorce,” (abstract) The Family in America, March 2002.

Russo, Francine. “Can the Government Prevent Divorce?” Atlantic Monthly, October


Vobejda, Barbara. “Critics, Seeking Change, Fault ‘No-Fault’ Divorce Laws for High

Rates,” Washington Post, March 7, 1996.

“More Good News About Divorce,” Washington Post, January 25, 1998.

Institute for American Values, “Does Divorce Make People Happy,” 7/11/02, pp. 1-4.

Garden, Mary. “Pro-Marriage Politicians Rely on Flawed Studies,” Women’s e-News,


McManus, Michael. “Why is it in the Government’s Interest to Save Marriages,”

Testimony before New Hampshire legislature, The Heritage Foundation Webmemo #80, 2/25/02.



Week 10: Cognition


I Cognition Differences: Theory and Findings


Baron-Cohen, Simon. The Essential Difference, pp. 152-154, 158-159, 162-169, 57-60,

69-79, 133-143.

Kimura, Doreen. “Sex Differences in the Brain,” Scientific American, 1992, p. 119-125.

Lubinski, David, Camilla Persson Benbow, and Cheryl E. Sanders. “Reconceptualizing

Gender Differences in Achievement  Among the Gifted,” pp. 699-705 in

K.A. Heller et al. eds., International Handbook of Research and Development of

Giftedness and Talent (London: Pergamon Press).

Pool, Robert. Eve’s Rib, 1994, pp. 55-63.

Lips, Hillary. Sex and Gender, 1997, pp. 164-167.

Suplee, Curt. “Sexes Shown to Think Differently,” Washington Post, 2/16/95, p. A1.

Suplee, Curt. “Neurobiology: Why the Gender Gap,” Washington Post, 1/30/95, p. A2.

McGuinness, Diane. When Children Don’t Learn, New York: Basic Books, 1985, pp. 20-

23, 83-84, 89-90, 125-142.

Wilkinson, Amy E. “In Her New Book, Lani Guinier Says It’s Time for New Teaching

Methods,” Pennsylvania Law Weekly, June 30, 1997.

BeVier, Lillian, “Is Lani Guinier Right? Women in Law Schools,” Ex Femina, April


Zhao, Yilu. “Beyond Sweetie,” New York Times, 11-04.


II Tests, Grades, and Accomplishments


Xiguang, Li. “Mental Ability Tests Show Sharp Differences by Sex,” Washington Post,

July 7, 1995.

“White Men Outscore All Women on Medical Exam,” Washington Post, Sept. 7, 1994.

Arenson, Karen W. “College Board Revises Test to Improve Chances for Girls,” New

York Times, Oct. 2, 1996.

Alaimo, Kara. “New SAT Could Shrink Test’s Gender Gap,” WeNews, 3/15/05.

Nakashima, Ellen. “Where in the World are Girls in Geography? Greater Number of

Boys Find Way to National Bee,” Washington Post, May 21, 1998.

Lavon, Neal. “Girl Grievance,” Washington Post, May 30, 1998.

Data on Education Results By Gender, The American Enterprise, Sept. 2002, p. 61.


III Gender and High School Achievement: Role of Natural Differences, Social Factors, and Discrimination


Benning, Victoria. “Gender Gap in Fairfax Computer Classes,” Washington Post,


Stabiner, Karen. “Where the Girls Aren’t,” New York Times, 1/12/03.

Hulbert, Ann. “Boy Problems,” New York Times, 4/3/05.




IV Single-Sex Education


Sax, Leonard. Why Gender Matters (New York: Doubleday) 2005, pp. 78-81, 85-102.

Zwerling, Elizabeth. “California Study: Single-Sex Schools No Cure All,” Women’s

eNews, 6/3/01.

Strauss, Valerie, “Equal Opportunity Learning: Gender Differences Prompt Teachers to

Try Tactics Geared to Both,” Washington Post, Feb. 22, 2000, p. A9.

Goodman, Ellen. “Single Sex Ed Makes the Wrong Assumptions,” The Daily Progress,


Longo, Robert. “Why Same Sex and Coed Classes are Equally Beneficial, if Experienced

at the Right Time,” 11-04.


Week 11: Occupational Segregation and the Glass Ceiling


I Background


Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don’t Understand, pp. 236-237.

Major, Brenda, Dean McFarlin, and Diana Gagnon. “Overworked and Underpaid: On the

Nature of Gender Differences in Personal Entitlement,” Journal of Personality

and Social Psychology 47(6), 1984, p. 1399.

Associated Press. “Young Female Doctors Reach Pay Parity With Men,” Washington

Post, April 11, 1996.

“Working Women,” The Washington Post, March 7, 1999.

Downey, Kristin. “Women Rising in Corporate Ranks, Report Says,” Washington Post,



II Possible Biological Influences on Occupation & Occupational Achievement


Dabbs, James M. “Testosterone and Occupational Achievement,” Social Forces 30(3),

March 1992, p. 813.

Purifoy, Frances E. and Lambert H. Koopmans. “Andostenedione, Testosterone, and Free

Testosterone Concentration in Women of Various Occupations,” Social Biology

26(3), Fall 1979, p. 179.

Kimura, Doreen. “Commentary on the Report of the 5th Canadian Conference of Women

in Engineering, Science and Technology, York University, August 1992,” CAUT

Bulletin, 1994.

Hines, Melissa (and Kimura response). “Sex Ratios at Work,” Scientific American, 2/93.

Walter, Erica. “Cops and Gender P.C.,” American Enterprise, June 2005.


III Contrasting Explanations


“Sex Bias Cited in Vocational Ed,” Washington Post, 6/16/02.

Goldin, Claudia and Cecilia Rouse. “Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of ‘Blind’

Auditions on Female Musicians,” NBER working paper #5903, Jan. 1997, abstract only.

Williams, Joan. “Deconstructing Gender,” in Bartlett and Kennedy, pp. 95-123.

Browne, Kingsley. Biology at Work, pp. 35-45, 53-55, 61-66, 69-88.

Williams, Joan. “Why Moms Stay Home,” Washington Post, 7/17/03.

Stahl, Leslie. “Staying at Home,” 60 Minutes, CBS News, 10/10/04.

Nemko, Marty. “Men Driven to an Early Grave,”, 11/5/03.

Hakim, Catherine. Work-Lifestyle Choices in the 21st Century (Oxford, 2000) pp. 94-103.


IV The Glass Ceiling


Tannen, Deborah. “The Glass Ceiling,” Talking From 9 to 5, New York: Avon, 1994, pp.

132-144, 151-159, reread 196-198.

Gallese, Liz Roman. “Blame Male Managers,” Across the Board, April 1991, pp. 19-22.

Rhode, Deborah. Speaking of Sex, (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1997),

pp. 141-149.

Morris, Betsy. “Executive Women Confront Midlife Crisis,” Fortune, Sept. 1995, pp. 45-51.

Kingsley Browne vs. Rosalind Arden. “Sex at Work,” Prospect, Oct. 1998, pp. 16-20.

Hymowitz, Carol. “Women Put Noses to the Grindstone, And Miss Opportunities,” Wall

Street Journal, 2/3/04.

Tierney, John. “What Women Want,” New York Times, 5/24/05.

Kinsley, Michael. ”He Wrote, She Wrote,” Los Angeles Times, 3/20/05.

Sullivan, Amy. “Silent Femme,” 3/22/05.

Smardz, Zofia. “Just Give it a Shot, Girls,” Washington Post, 3/27/05.


V Women in Combat


Browne, Kingsley, “Coed Combat,” Chapter Outline for Book Manuscript 2004.

Wojack, Adam, “Integrating Women Into the Infantry,” Military Review, Nov/Dec 2002.

O’Bierne, Kate, “When Lives Are at Stake,” Ex Femina, September 1997, pp. 10-13.

Pictures of male Marines in Afghanistan, Washington Post, 11/30/01 and female Marine

recruit at Parris Island, 4/28/02.


Week 13: Women in the University and Parental Leave Policy


I Female Professors and American Universities


Browne, Kingsley. Women in Science: Biological Factors Should Not Be Ignored, pp. 15-

17, 23-25, 29-30.

“President Summers’ Remarks at the National Bureau of Economic Research,” 1/14/05


Pinker –Spelke debate, selections.

Chang, Kenneth. “Women in Physics Match Men in Success,” New York Times, 2/22/05.

Goodman, Ellen. “Can Women Have It All,” Boston Globe, 1/23/05.

Glazer, Sarah. “Gender and Learning,” CQ Researcher, 5/20/05, pg. 448-49 graphs only.

Canes, Brandice and Harvey Rosen. “Following in Her Footsteps? Faculty Gender

Composition and Women’s Choices of College Majors,” Industrial and Labor Relations

Review 48(3), April 1995, pp. 486-488 and 499-500 only.

Selvin, Paul. “Does the Harrison Case Reveal Sexism in Math?” Science, June 28, 1991,

p. 1781.

Cole, John S. and Zuckerman, Harriet. “The Productivity Puzzle: Persistence and Change

in Patterns of Publication of Men and Women Scientists,” pp. 217-218 (abstract),

Steinkamp, Marjorie and Maehr, Martin L., eds., Advances in Motivation and

Achievement (Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press, 1984.

“Shameful,” Economist, May 24, 1997, p. 79.

Carr, Phyllis, et al. “Relation of Family Responsibilities and Gender in the Productivity

and Career Satisfaction of Medical Faculty,” Annals of Internal Medicine,

October 1, 1998, p. 532 only.

Laine, Christine. “On Being Dr. Mom,” Annals of Internal Medicine, October 1, 1998.

Drago, Robert and Joan Williams. “A Half Time Tenure Track Proposal,” Change, 11/02.

Bartlett, Thomas. “Women Who Have Children Early in Their Careers Hurt Their

Chances to Achieve Tenure,” from The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2/12/02.


II Parental Leave in U.S. and Europe


Reid, T.R. “Norway Pays a Price for Family Values,” The Washington Post, 11/1/98.

Kamerman, Sheila. “Parental Leave Policies: An Essential Ingredient in Early Childhood

Education and Care Policies,” Social Policy Report (Society for Research in Child

Development) XIV(2), 2000, pp. 1, 3-15.

Knudsen, Jens. “Parental Leave in Scandinavia and the United States,” 5/02 excerpts.

Rhoads. Taking Sex Differences Seriously, Ch. 1.

Rhoads, Steven and Chris. “Gender Roles and Post-Birth Leaves,” charts only.


Week 14: The Contemporary Debate


I Background


Span, Paula. “Television Tunes in to Real Differences Between the Sexes,” Washington

Post, March 16, 1999.

“Reality Check: The Gender Revolution,” Washington Post, March 22, 1998.

Ginty, Molly M. “Sleep Deprivation Threatens Women’s Health,” 3/28/05.


II Differing Perspectives


Goldberg, Steven. Why Men Rule, 1993, pp. 224-229.

Angier, Natalie. “Men, Women, Sex and Darwin,” New York Times Magazine, 2/21/99.

Tiger, Lionel. “The Human Nature Project,” Bradley lecture at AEI, 12/9/02.

Steinem, Gloria. “Reving Up for the Next 25 Years,” Ms., Sept. 1997, pp. 82-84.

Graglia, Carolyn F. The Housewife as Pariah, (The Institute of United States Studies,

University of London, 1997).

Young, Cathy. “Sex and Sensibility,” Reason, March 1999.

Pollit, Kathy. “Marooned on Gilligan’s Island: Are Women Morally Superior to Men?” in

Reasonable Creatures: Essays on Women and Feminism, 1994, pp. 42-62.

Crittenden, Danielle. Ch. 2 from What Our Mothers Didn’t Tell Us,

(Simon and Schuster, 1999).

Cathy cartoon.

Rhoads. Taking Sex Differences Seriously, Conclusion.