[1] See Handbook, Chapter 16 "Melodrama," by Steven N. Lipkin, p. 285-302; Case, in Lynda Hart, ed., Making a Spectacle (1989), p. 282-299.

[2] Acker, Reel Women (1991), p. 11.

[3] Manchel, Film Study (1990), p. 474.

[4] Manchel, Film Study (1990), p. 481-485.

[5] There is a large set of literature on this debate and discussion of these issues of 'women in cinema.' Two references exemplify discussions on many of these issues -- Patrice Petro's "Feminism and Film History," Camera Obscura, 1990, no. 22, p. 9-28; and Frank Manchel, Film Study (1990), under Chapter 3. "Stereotyping film: Ideology Versus Entertainment," p. 455-464, and "The Feminist Approach," p. 465-526, especially his ideas on the differences of approaches on each side of the Atlantic Ocean, p. 465-467.

[6] Bonnie Dawson, Women's Films in Print (1975); Linda Lopez McAlister, Best Feminist Feature Films of 1992, and -------, Year's Best Films of 1993; and Barbara Flynn, "Images: Women and Issues," Sightlines Spring 1992, p. 14-16.

[7] See Electronic Sources on the Internet, in that section below.