Y2K Bibliography of Experimental Economics and Social Science
Subject Pool and Gender Effects

updated December 29, 1999
Charles A. Holt, cah2k@virginia.edu, suggestions and corrections welcome
(for online and personal use only)

Andreoni, James, and Lise Vesterlund (1999) “Which is the Fair Sex? Gender Differences in Altruism,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, public, income distribution, division games, dictator games, altruism, gender effects. Abstract: Gender differences are analyzed using data from dictator games with different prices for transfering earnings to the other person. Men are more altruistic when it is cheap to transfer money to the other person, whereas women are more altruistic when it is expensive. Women are more likely to choose equal division, and men are more likely to be at the extremes (selfish or selfless). These differences may explain why other studies reach conflicting conclusions about gender effects on contributions to a public good. Email Contact: andreoni@facstaff.wisc.edu, vester@iastate.edu

Aymard, Stephane, and Daniel Serra (1999) “Dynamic Optimization and Backward Induction: An Experimental Study,” University of Montpellier, Discussion Paper, presented at the Fall 1999 European Regional ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, decisions, backward induction, dynamic optimization, renewable resource, subject pool effects, non-student subjects. Abstract: Subjects made sequential decisions in a single-person renewable resource extraction problem, with a constant growth rate and a finite number of periods. Efficiencies are high and increase with experience, and student subjects perform better than non-student (employed) subjects. Email Contact: stf@sceco.univ-montpl.fr

Ball, Sheryl B., and Paula A. Cech (1991) “The What, When, and Why of Picking a Subject Pool,” Virginia Polytechnic University, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, methodology, subject pool effects. Email Contact: sball@vt.edu

Beil, Richard, T. Randolph Beard, and Yoshiharu Mataga (1998) “Cultural Determinants of Economic Success: Trust and Cooperation in the U.S. and Japan,” Auburn University, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, game theory, trust, cooperation, cultural comparisons, international comparisons, Japan. Abstract: The experiment provides a comparison of the behavior of Japanese and U.S. business students in a game where an initial move may involve some element of trust. The setting is a two-stage game with perfect information. The authors conclude that Japanese students are less trusting in this context. Email Contact: RBEIL@business.auburn.edu

Belianim, Alexis (1999) “Risk Attitudes and Choice Under Uncertainty: Russian Experimental Data,” University of Manchester, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, decisions, risk preference, elicitation, Russia, international comparisons, subject pool effects.

Bohm, Peter, and Hans Lind (1993) “Preference Reversal, Real-World Lotteries, and Lottery-Interested Subjects,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 22:3 (December), 327-348. Keywords: experiments, decisions, lottery-choice, preference reversals, subject pool effects. Email Contact: pb@ne.su.se

Bolton, Gary E., and Elena Katok (1995) “An Experimental Test for Gender Differences in Beneficient Behavior,” Economic Letters, 48:3-4 (June), 287-292. Keywords: experiments, bargaining,* gender effects, subject pool effects. Email Contact: geb3@psu.edu

Brachinger, Hans Wolfgang, Martin Brown, Matthias Gysler, and Renate Schubert (1998) “Financial Choice Behavior - Are Women Really More Risk Averse?,” Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, decisions, risk aversion, subject pool effects, gender effects. Abstract: Do women hold less risky portfolios than men because they are more risk averse, or is it that they have lower wealth levels and face other constraints? This paper reports experiments designed to evaluate gender effects on risky choice in various contexts using several alternative measurement procedures. Email Contact: schubert@wif.reok.ethz.ch

Brandts, Jordi, Takatoshi Saijo, and Arthur Schram (1998) “A Four Country Comparison of Spite and Cooperation in Voluntary Contribution Mechanisms,” Institute of Economic Analysis, Barcelona, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meetings. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributins, spite, cooperation, international comparisons, subject pool effects, Japan, Netherlands, Spain. Abstract: A four country comparison of behavior in a voluntary contributions experiment provides little evidence for cross-country differences. In contrast, there is not much observed spiteful behavior among Japanese subjects. Email Contact: brandts@cc.uab.es

Brown-Kruse, Jamie, and David Hummels (1993) “Gender Effects in Laboratory Public Goods Contribution: Do Individuals Put Their Money Where Their Mouth Is?,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 22:3 (December), 255-267. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, gender effects. Email Contact: jamie.kruse@ttu.edu

Buchan, Nancy, Eric Johnson, and Rachel Croson (1999) “Understanding What's Fair: Contrasting Perceptions of Fairness in Ultimatum Bargaining in Japan and the U.S.,” University of Pennsylvania, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1999 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, bargaining, ultimatum games, fairness, cultural comparisons, international comparisons. Email Contact: crosonr@wharton.upenn.edu

Burns, Penny (1985) “Experience and Decision Making: A Comparison of Students and Businessmen in a Simulated Progressive Auction,” in Research in Experimental Economics, Volume 3, edited by V.L. Smith, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 139-157. Keywords: experiments, methodology, subject pool effects, auctions. Email

Cadsby, Charles B., and Elizabeth Maynes (1998) “Choosing Between a Socially Efficient and Free-Riding Equilibrium: Nurses Versus Economics and Business Students,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 37:2 (October), 183-192. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, subject pool effects, methodology, step-level public goods game. Abstract: This step-level public goods game has equilibria at both provision and non-provision. The students converged to the free riding equilibrium, whereas the nurses cycled around the cooperative equilibrium.

Cadsby, Charles B., and Elizabeth Maynes (1998) “Gender and Free Riding in a Threshold Public Goods Game: Experimental Evidence,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 34:4 (March), 603-620. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, methodology, subject pool effects, gender effects, step-level public goods game. Abstract: This step-level public goods game has equilibria at both provision and non-provision. The initial tendency for females to contribute more than males tends to vanish over time. Female groups showed a stronger uniformity in convergence to the equilibrium selected.

Caldwell, M. (1976) “Communication and Sex Differences in a Five-Person and Prisoner's Dilemma Game,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33273-280. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, communication, gender effects.

Cameron, L. A. (1999) “Raising the Stakes in the Ultimatum Game: Evidence from Indonesia,” Economic Inquiry, 37:1 (January), 47-59. Keywords: experiments, bargaining, ultimatum game, methodology, incentives, international subject pool, Indonesia. Abstract: High stakes ultimatum game experiments are conducted in Indonesia. Responders are somewhat more willing to accept a given percentage the high money amount, but proposer behavior is largely invariant to increases in the stakes.

Carter, John R., and Michael D. Irons (1991) “Are Economists Different, and if So, Why?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5171-177. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, methodology, subject pool effects. Email Contact: jcarter@holycross.edu

Cason, Timothy, Tatsuyoshi Saijo, and Takehiko Yamato (1999) “Voluntary Participation and Spite in Public Good Provision Experiments: An International Comparison,” Purdue University, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, spite, entry, international comparison, subject pool effects, Japan. Email Contact: cason@mgmt.purdue.edu

Cooper, David J., John H. Kagel, Wei Lo, and Qing Liang Gu (1999) “Gaming Against Managers in Incentive Systems: Experimental Results with Chinese Students and Chinese Managers,” American Economic Review, 89:4 (September), 781-804. Keywords: experiments, game theory, signalling games, strategic behavior, subject pool effects, incentive effects, context effects, methodology. Abstract: Students and managers in China are used as subjects in strategic incentive games with asymmetric information, under varying incentive and context conditions. Play converges only incompletely to a pooling equilibrium, although large increases in financial incentives produce more strategic play. Email Contact: djc13@guinness.som.cwru.edu

Cox, James C. (1999) “Trust, Reciprocity, and Other-Regarding Preferences of Individuals and Groups,” University of Arizona, presented at the Fall 1999 European Regional ESA Meeting, Keywords: experiments, public, trust game, reciprocity, other-regarding preferences, gender effects, group decisions. Abstract: This experiment is based on a design that distinguishes reciprocity motives for transfers from other-regarding preferences. The data analysis considers gender effects and comparisons of individuals and groups. Email Contact: jcox@bpa.arizona.edu

Daly, Margin, Thomas Rietz, and Margo Wilson (1998) “Sensation and Risk Seeking: A Study Comparing Psychological, Simple Gamble, and Market Measures of Risk Attitudes,” University of Iowa, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, decisions, risk attitudes, methodology, lottery choice, gender effects, Zuckerman scale, psychology. Abstract: Subjects' risk attitudes are measured by the Zuckerman psychological scale, by the Berg and Rietz lottery-choice scale, and by trading positions on the Iowa Economic Markets. Preliminary results show a strong correlation between the Zuckerman and lottery-choice measures, with significant gender effects. Email Contact: thomas-rietz@uiowa.edu

DeJong, Douglas V., Robert Forsythe, and Wilfred C. Uecker (1988) “A Note on the Use of Businessmen as Subjects in Sealed Offer Markets,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 9:1 (January), 87-100. Keywords: experiments, methodology, subject pool effects, markets, auctions. Email Contact: dejong@blue.weeg.uiowa.edu

Dyer, Douglas, John H. Kagel, and Dan Levin (1989) “A Comparison of Naive and Experienced Bidders in Common Value Offer Auctions: A Laboratory Analysis,” Economic Journal, 99:394 (March), 108-115. Keywords: experiments, auctions, common value, experience effects, methodology, winner's curse, risk aversion, expert subjects, subject pool effects. Abstract: The first price common value auctions were structured so that the low bidder wins the prize (e.g. construction contract). Overbidding and the winner's curse effect was observed for both student participants and in a session with experts from the construction industry. Differences behavior were attributed to risk aversion among the students and more risk neutral behavior fo the executives. Email Contact: levin.36@osu.edu

Eckel, Catherine C., and Philip Grossman (1998) “Are Women Less Selfish than Men? Evidence From Dictator Games,” Economic Journal, 108:448 (May), 726-735. Keywords: experiments, bargaining, dictator games, gender effects. Email Contact: eckelc@vt.edu

Eckel, Catherine C., and Philip J. Grossman (1995) “Chivalry and Solidarity in Ultimatum Games,” Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, bargaining, ultimatum games, gender effects, social distance. Email Contact: eckelc@vt.edu

Eckel, Catherine C., and Philip J. Grossman (1996) “The Relative Price of Fairness: Gender Differences in a Punishment Game,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 30:2 (August), 143-158. Keywords: experiments, game theory, gender effects, fairness. Email Contact: eckelc@vt.edu

Eckel, Catherine C., and Philip J. Grossman (1999) “Differences in the Economic Decisions of Men and Women: Experimental Evidence,” in Handbook of Experimental Economics Results, edited by C. R. Plott and V. L. Smith, New York: Elsevier, forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, methodology, subject pool effects, gender effects, survey. Email Contact: eckelc@vt.edu

Frank, Robert H., Thomas Gilovich, and Dennis T. Regan (1993) “Does Studying Economics Inhibit Cooperation?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7159-171. Keywords: experiments, methodology, subject pool effects, public, voluntary contributions.

Harbaugh, William T., and Kate Krause (1998) “Children's Contributions in Public Good Experiments: The Development of Altruistic and Free-Riding Behaviors,” University of Oregon, Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, subject pool effects, children subjects, altruism, free-riding, bargaining, dictator game. Abstract: Voluntary contributions experiments reveal that altruistic behavior in children is similar in the aggregate to that of adults. The contributions of older children decline over time, as with adults, but the contributions of younger children tend to increase. A measure of group attachment is more closely correlated with contributions than social and demographic characteristics. Email Contact:
harbaugh@oregon.uoregon.edu

Henrich, J. (1998) “An Ultimatum Game Experiment Among the Machiguenga,” U.C.L.A., Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, bargaining, ultimatum game, subject pool effects, anthropology.

Kachelmeier, Steven J., and Mohamed Shehata (1992) “Examining Risk Preferences Under High Monetary Incentives: Experimental Evidence from the People's Republic of China,” American Economic Review, 82:5 (December), 1120-1141. Keywords: experiments, decisions, risk preference, elicitation, high incentives, international comparisons, subject pool effects, China. Email Contact: kach@mail.utexas.edu

Kachelmeier, S. J., and M. Shehata (1992) “Culture and Competition: A Laboratory Market Comparison between China and the West,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 19:2 (October), 145-168. Keywords: experiments, markets, methodology, subject pool effects, China. Email Contact: kach@mail.utexas.edu

Kagel, John H., Raymond C. Battalio, and James M. Walker (1979) “Volunteer Artifacts in Experiments in Economics: Specification of the Problem and Some Initial Data from a Small-Scale Field Experiment,” in Research in Experimental Economics, 1, edited by V. L. Smith, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 169-197. Keywords: experiments, methodology, subject pool. Email Contact: kagel+@pitt.edu

Kagel, John H., Don N. MacDonald, and Raymond C. Battalio (1990) “Tests of 'Fanning Out' of Indifference Curves: Results from Animal and Human Experiments,” American Economic Review, 80:4 (September), 912-921. Keywords: experiments, decisions, lottery choice, fanning out, animal subjects, subject pool effects. Email Contact: kagel+@pitt.edu

Kahn, Kim F. (1994) “Does Gender Make a Difference? An Experimental Examination of Sex Stereotypes and Press
Patterns in Statewide Campaigns,” American Journal of Political Science, 38:1 (February), 162-195. Keywords: experiments, public, voting, gender effects.

Kaplan, Todd R., and Bradley J. Ruffle (1999) “The Self-Serving Bias and Beliefs about Rationality,” Ben-Gurion University, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1999 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, decisions, self-serving bias, subject pool effects, rationality. Email Contact: bradley@bgumail.bug.ac.il

Koch, Bradley J. (1998) “A Public Good Experiment in Greater China: Economic Development as a Determinant of Voluntary Contributions,” University of Arizona, Discussion Paper, presented at the Fall 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, subject pool effects, methodology, China, cross-cultural comparisons, special subjects. Email Contact: bradley@u.arizona.edu

Laband, David N., and Richard O. Biel (1999) “Are Economists More Selfish than Other `Social' Scientists?,” Public Choice, 100:1-2 (July), 85-101. Keywords: experiments, methodology, subject pool effects, selfishness.

Ledyard, John O. (1995) “Public Goods: A Survey of Experimental Research,” in A Handbook of Experimental Economics, edited by A. Roth and J. Kagel, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 111-194. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, survey, mechanisms, altruism, noisy behavior, reciprocity, step-level public goods, gender effects, interior Nash, nonlinear payoffs. Email Contact: jledyard@hss.caltech.edu

Lensberg, Terje, and Eline Van der Heijden (1998) “A Cross-Cultural Study of Reciprocity, Trust and Altruism in a Gift Exchange Experiment,” Tilburg University, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, markets, trust, reciprocity, altruism, subject pool effects, culture, Norway, Netherlands. Abstract: This a cross cultural study of mutual gift giving in a context where such giving is socially efficient but individually costly. Norwegian subjects give more than Dutch subjects and have more concern for reciprocity. Gifts are higher when information is provided about the previous gift. Email Contact: eline.vanderheijden@kub.nl

Lichtenstein, Sarah, and Paul Slovic (1973) “Response-Induced Reversals of Preference in Gambling: An Extended Replication in Las Vegas,” Journal of Experimental Psychology, 10116-20. Keywords: experiments, decisions, lottery choice, preference reversals, professionals as subjects, methodology, subject pool.

List, John A. (1999) “A Field Test of the Cheap Talk Valuation Design,” University of Central Florida, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, field experiments, decisions, contingent valuation, real incentives, hypothetical bias, cheap talk admonitions about hypothetical bias, professional dealer subjects, subject pool comparisons, second price auctions. Abstract: A second price auction for sports cards is used to elicit valuations under three incentive structures: real, hypothetical, and hypothetical-with-warnings about overstating values. The cheap talk warning eliminated hypothetical bias in non-professional subjects, but the bids of card dealers decline sharply with real incentives relative to the cheap-talk (hypothetical incentives) treatment. Email Contact: John.List@bus.ucf.edu

Lohmann, C., J. C. Usunier, and Marc Willinger (1999) “A Comparison of Trust and Reciprocity Between France and Germany: An Experimental Investigation Based on the Investment Game,” Universite Louis Pasteur, presented at the Fall 1999 European Regional ESA Meetings, Keywords: experiments, game theory, trust game, reciprocity, subject pool effects, international comparisons, France, Germany. Abstract: In this game, any investment by player A gets tripled and passed to Player B, who can keep it or return part to player A. Investment was about 50% higher among German subjects, but rates of reciprocal return were similar for the two countries. Email Contact: willma@cournot.u-strasbg.fr

Marwell, Gerald, and Ruth E. Ames (1981) “Economists Free Ride, Does Anyone Else?*,” Journal of Public Economics, 15:3 (June), 295-310. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, subject pool effects. Email Contact: marwell@ssc.wisc.edu

Marwell, Gerald, David R. Schmitt, and Robert Shotola (1970) “Sex Differences in a Cooperative Task,” Behavioral Science, 15184-186. Keywords: experiments, game theory, gender effects.

Mason, Charles F., Owen R. Phillips, and D. B. Redington (1991) “The Role of Gender in a Non-cooperative Game,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 15:2 (March), 215-235. Keywords: experiments, methodology, gender, game theory. Email Contact: bambuzlr@uwyo.edu

Murnighan, J. Keith, and M. S. Saxon (1998) “Ultimatum Bargaining by Children and Adults,” Journal of Economic Psychology, 19:4 (August), 415-445. Keywords: experiments, bargaining, ultimatum game, children subjects, subject pool effects. Email Contact: keithm@nwu.edu

Noussair, Charles N., Charles R. Plott, and Raymond Riezman (1997) “The Principles of Exchange Rate Determination in an International Finance Experiment,” Journal of Political Economy, 105:4 (August), 822-861. Keywords: experiments, macroeconomics, international finance, exchange rates, multiple markets. Email Contact: noussair@mgmt.purdue.edu

Nowell, Clifford, and Sarah Tinkler (1994) “The Influence of Gender on the Provision of a Public Good,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 25:1 25-36. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contribution, gender effects.

Ockenfels, Axel, and J. Weimann (1999) “Types and Patterns: An Experimental East-West-German Comparison of Cooperation and Solidarity,” Journal of Public Economics, 71:2 (February), 275-287. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, solidarity, cross cultural comparison, subject pool effects, Germany, culture. Abstract: East German subjects exhibit more selfishness than West German subjects in a cross-cultural comparison of behavior in public goods and solidarity game experiments. Email Contact: axel.ockenfels@ww.uni-magdeburg.de

Ortmann, Andreas, and Lisa K. Tichy (1999) “Gender Differences in the Laboratory: Evidence from Prisoner's Dilemma Games,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 39:3 227-339. Keywords: experiments, game theory, methodology, gender effects.

Parks, C. D., and A. D. Vu (1994) “Social Dilemma Behavior of Individuals from Highly Individualist and Collectivist Cultures,” Journal of Conflict and Resolution, 38:4 (December), 708-718. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, social dilemma, subject pool effects, culture.

Peters, H. Elizabeth, Sinan Umir, Jeremy Clark, and William D. Schulze (1999) “Free Riding and the Provision of Public Goods in the Family: An Experimental Test of the Rotten Kid Theorem,” Cornell University, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, altruism, family members, subject pool effects.

Powell, M., and D. Ansic (1997) “Gender Differences in Risk Behavior in Financial Decision-Making: An Experimental Analysis,” Journal of Economic Psychology, 18:6 (November), 605-628. Keywords: experiments, decisions, gender effects, subject pool effects.

Rapoport, Anatol, and Albert M. Chammah (1965) “Sex Differences in Factors Contributing to the Level of Cooperation in a Prisoner's Dilemma Game,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2831-838. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation, gender effects.

Rapoport, Anatol, Melvin Guyer, and David Gordon (1971) “A Comparison of Performance of Danish and American Students in a `Threat Game',” Behavioral Science, 16456-466. Keywords: experiments, game theory, threat game, subject pool effects.

Roth, Alvin E., Vesna Prasnikar, Masahiro Okuno-Fujiwara, and Shmuel Zamir (1991) “Bargaining and Market Behavior in Jerusalem, Ljubljana, Pittsburgh, and Tokyo: An Experimental Study,” American Economic Review, 81:5 (December), 1068-1095. Keywords: experiments, bargaining, subject pool effects, international comparisons. Email Contact: aroth@hbs.edu

Søberg, Morten (1999) “Asymmetric Information and International Tradable Quota Treaties: An Experimental Evaluation,” Statistics Norway, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1999 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, markets, tradable emissions permits, international, environmental economics. Email Contact: morten.soberg@ssb.no

Van Huyck, John (1998) “Prudence, Justice, Benevolence: Evidence from Similar Bargaining Games,” Texas A&M University, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, bargaining, gender effects. Email Contact: john.vanhuyck@tamu.edu