Y2K Bibliography of Experimental Economics and Social Science
Social Dilemma Experiments (excluding public goods)

Charles A. Holt, cah2k@virginia.edu, suggestions and corrections welcome
(for online and personal use only)


Ahn, Toh-Kyeong, Elinor Ostrom, David Schmidt, Robert Shupp, and James Walker (1999) “Dilemma Games: Game Parameters and Matching Protocols,” Indiana University, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation, matching protocols. Email Contact: walkerj@indiana.edu

Ahn, Toh-Kyeong, Elinor Ostrom, David Schmidt, Robert Shupp, and James Walker (1999) “Cooperation in PD Games: Fear, Greed, and History of Play,” Public Choice, forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation. Email Contact: walkerj@indiana.edu

Ahn, Toh-Kyeong, Elinor Ostrom, and James Walker (1998) “Trust and Reciprocity; Experimental Evidence from PD Games,” Indiana University, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation, trust, reciprocity. Email Contact: walkerj@indiana.edu

Anderson, Simon P., Jacob K. Goeree, and Charles A. Holt (1998) “Logit Equilibrium Models of Anomalous Behavior: What to Do when the Nash Equilibrium Says One Thing and the Data Say Something Else,” in Handbook of Experimental Economics Results, edited by C. R. Plott and V. L. Smith, New York: Elsevier Press, forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, game theory, survey, bounded rationality, logit equilibrium, quantal response equilibrium, traveler's dilemma, decision error. Abstract This paper shows how the logit equilibrium can be used to explain anomalous data patterns in a variety of games. Email Contact: sa9w@virginia.edu

Anderson, Simon P., Jacob K. Goeree, and Charles A. Holt (1999) “Properties of Logit Equilibria in Games with Rank-Based Payoffs,” University of Virginia, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, game theory, logit equilibrium, existence, uniqueness, symmetry, comparative statics, minimum effort coordination, order statistic coordination games, Bertrand price competition, traveler's dilemma, best shot game, all-pay auction. Abstract: The paper characterizes the logit equilibria for a class of games with payoffs that depend on the ranking of players' decisions, including Bertrand price competition, the all-pay auction, Hotelling's location game, the traveler's dilemma, and many variants of coordination games. General existence, uniqueness, and comparative proofs are presented and applied. Email Contact: holt@virginia.edu

Andreoni, James, and John H. Miller (1993) “Rational Cooperation in the Finitely Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma: Experimental Evidence,” Economic Journal, 103:418 (May), 570-585. Keywords: experiments, games, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation, backward induction. Email Contact: andreoni@facstaff.wisc.edu

Andreoni, James, and Hal Varian (1999) “Pre-Play Contracting in the Prisoner's Dilemma,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96(September), 10933-10938. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, contracting. Abstract: The prisoner's dilemma is modified by adding an initial stage in which players can precommit to reward the other one for a cooperative decision in the second stage. This modification greatly increases the rate of cooperation. Email Contact: andreoni@facstaff.wisc.edu, hal@sims.berkeley.edu

Axelrod, Robert (1970) Conflict of Interest, Chicago: Markham. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation, evolution.

Axelrod, Robert (1984) The Evolution of Cooperation, New York: Basic Books. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation, evolution.

Axelrod, Robert (1986) “An Evolutionary Approach to Norms,” American Political Science Review, 80:4 (December), 1095-1111. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation, tit-for-tat strategies.

Beckman, Steven R. (1990) “Producer's Dilemma Experiments,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 27-46. Keywords: experiments, game theory, producer's dilemma. Email Contact: sbeckman@castle.cudenver.edu

Beckman, Steven R. (1990) “Producer's Dilemma Experiments: Reply,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 14:2 (October), 287. Keywords: experiments, game theory, producer's dilemma. Email Contact: sbeckman@castle.cudenver.edu

Bienert, Horst, and Alexander Karmann (1998) “The Subscriber's Dilemma: Excess Demand in Experimental Stock Issuing,” Dresden, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meetings. Keywords: experiments, game theory, asset markets, stock issue, transactions costs, beauty contest guessing game. Abstract: Investors participating in an "oversubscribed" initital stock offering may have an incentive to overstate their intrinsic demands in order to obtain more shares if allocations are rationed in proportion to demand. The absence of a unique Nash equilibrium in this context is the motivation for the subscriber's dilemma experiments. Email Contact: karmann@rcs.urz.tu-dresden.de, horst.bienert@t-online.de

Bixenstine, E., C. Levitt, and K. Wilson (1966) “Collaboration Among Six Persons in a Prisoner's Dilemma Game,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 10488-496. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation.

Bohnet, Iris, and B. S. Frey (1999) “The Sound of Silence in Prisoner's Dilemma and Dictator Games,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 38:1 (January), 43-57. Keywords: experiments, game theory, bargaining, prisoner's dilemma, dictator game, social distance, identification, information. Abstract: The paper examines the effects of relaxing the strict anonymity conditions that are standard in most prisoner's dilemma and dictator experiments, Knowing the other player's identity increases cooperative behavior, even in the absence of cooperation. Email Contact: iris_bohnet@harvard.edu

Bohnet, Iris, and Dorothea Küebler (1999) “If Only We Could Choose the World We Want to Live in: Sorting in the Prisoner's Dilemma,” Harvard University, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1999 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, game theory, psychology, prisoner's dilemma, incentive to defect, choice of games. Email Contact: iris_bohnet@harvard.edu

Bolle, Friedel, and P. Ockenfels (1990) “Prisoners' Dilemma as a Game with Incomplete Information,” Journal of Economic Psychology, 11:1 (March), 69-84. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, incomplete information. Email Contact: bolle@euv-frankfurt-o.de

Bolton, Gary E., Jordi Brandts, and Axel Ockenfels (1998) “Measuring Motivations for the Reciprocal Responses Observed in a Simple Dilemma Game,” Experimental Economics, 1:3 207-219. Keywords: experiments, game theory, dilemma game, reciprocity. Email Contact: geb3@psu.edu

Bolton, Gary E., and Axel Ockenfels (1998) “A Theory of Equity, Reciprocity, and Competition,” American Economic Review, forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, game theory, bargaining, public, voluntary contributions, fairness, equity, inequality aversion, prisoner's dilemmas. Abstract: This paper presents a model of other-regarding preferences that based on the idea that people are motivated by their own money payoff and by their relative payoff standing. The theory explains behavior in a variety of laboratory situations that include market competition, public goods, and bargaining. Email Contact: axel.ockenfels@ww.uni-magdeburg.de

Bonacich, Phillip (1970) “Putting the Dilemma Back into Prisoner's Dilemma,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 14379-387. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma.

Bornstein, Gary, and Meyrav Ben-Yossef (1995**) “Competition in Inter-Group and Single-Group Social Dilemmas,” European Journal of Social Psychology, . Keywords: experiments, game theory, social dilemmas, intergroup competition, groups.

Bornstein, Gary, Ido Erev, and Harel Green (1995**) “The Effect of Repeated Play in the PG and IPD Team Games,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, . Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, intergroup competition, groups.

Brandts, Jordi, and Enrique Fatas (1998) “Social Information as a Reference Point in an Experimental Social Dilemma,” Institute of Economic Analysis, Barcelona, Discussion Paper, presented at the Fall 1998 ESA Meetings. Keywords: experiments, game theory, social dilemma, information. Email Contact: brandts@cc.uab.es

Cain, Michael (1999) “An Experimental Test of Rational Cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game,” University of Mississippi, Discussion Paper, presented at the Spring 1999 Public Choice Meetings. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation.

Caldwell, M. (1976) “Communication and Sex Differences in a Five-Person and Prisoner's Dilemma Game,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33273-280. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, communication, gender effects.

Capra, C. Monica, Jacob K. Goeree, Rosario Gomez, and Charles A. Holt (1999) “Anomalous Behavior in a Traveler's Dilemma?,” American Economic Review, 89:3 (June), 678-690. Keywords: experiments, game theory, traveler's dilemma, logit equilibrium, learning, simulation, bounded rationality, quantal response. Abstract: The observed choices in a traveler's dilemma experiment are moved across the entire set of feasible decisions by changes in a treatment variable that has no effect on the unique Nash prediction. Dynamic patterns are explained by a logit learning model, and the steady state distributions are centered around the predictions of a logit equilibrium that generalizes the Nash equilibrium to allow for noisy behavior. Email Contact: jg2n@virginia.edu

Cooper, Russell, Douglas V. DeJong, Robert Forsythe, and Thomas W. Ross (1996) “Cooperation without Reputation: Experimental Evidence from Prisoner's Dilemma Games,” Games and Economic Behavior, 12:2 (February), 187-218. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation. Email Contact: rcooper@bu.edu

Dawes, Robyn M. (1980) “Social Dilemmas,” Annual Review of Psychology, 31169-193. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, social dilemma, psychology.

Dawes, Robyn M. (1991) “Social Dilemmas, Economic Self-Interest, and Evolutionary Theory,” in Recent Research in Psychology: Frontiers in Mathematical Psychology: Essays in Honor of Clyde Coombs, edited by R. D. Brown and J. E. K. Smith, New York: Springer-Verlag, . Keywords: experiments, game theory, social dilemmas, evolution. Email

Dawes, Robyn M., and John M. Orbell (1982) “Cooperation in Social Dilemma Situations: Thinking about It Doesn't Help,” in Research in Experimental Economics, Vol. 2, edited by V. L. Smith, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 167-173. Keywords: experiments, game theory, social dilemmas, cooperation. Email

Dawes, Robyn M., and Richard H. Thaler (1988) “Anomalies: Cooperation,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2:3 (Summer), 187-197. Keywords: experiments, game theory, social dilemmas, cooperation.

Diekmann, A. (1993) “Cooperation in Asymmetric Volunteer's Dilemma Game: Theory and Experimental Evidence,” International Journal of Game Theory, 22:1 75-85. Keywords: experiments, game theory, volunteer's dilemma, cooperation, asymmetric game.

Dolbear Jr., F.T., Lester Lave, G. Bowman, A. Lieberman, Edward Prescott, F. Reuter, and Roger Sherman (1968) “Collusion in the Prisoner's Dilemma: Number of Strategies,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 13252-261. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, number of strategies. Email Contact: rs5w@virginia.edu

Flood, Merrill M. (1952) “Some Experimental Games,” RAND Corporation, Discussion Paper, Rand Memorandum RM-789. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma.

Flood, Merrill M. (1954) “On Game-Learning Theory and Some Decision-Making Experiments,” in Decision Processes, edited by R. M. Thrall, C. H. Coombs and R. L. Davis, New York: Wiley, 139-158. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma. Email

Foddy, Margaret, Michael Smithson, Sherry Schneider, and Michael Hogg, eds. (1999) Resolving Social Dilemmas, Philadelphia: Psychology Press. Keywords: experiments, game theory, public, social dilemmas.

Frohlich, Norman, and Joe A. Oppenheimer (1996) “When Is Universal Contribution Best for the Group? Characterizing Optimality in the Prisoners' Dilemma,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 40:3 (September), 502-516. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma. Email Contact: frohlic@antares.cc.umanitoba.ca

Gallo Jr., Philip S., and John P. Sheposh (1972) “Indeterminacy of Outcome and the Prisoner's Dilemma Game,” in Contributions to Experimental Economics, Vol. 3, edited by Heinz Sauermann, Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 635-655. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma. Email

Gantner, Anitita, Robert Montgomery, and Giovanni Ponti (1998) “Solomon's Dilemma: An Experimental Study on Dynamic Implementation,” University of California at Santa Barbara, Discussion Paper, presented at the Fall 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, game theory, implementation. Email Contact: giuba@econ.ucsb.edu

Gardner, Roy, Elinor Ostrom, and James Walker (1994) “Social Capital and Cooperation: Communication, Bounded Rationality, and Behavioral Heuristics,” in Social Dilemmas and Cooperation, edited by U. Schulz, W. Albers and U. Mueller, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, . Keywords: experiments, game theory, cooperation, communication, social capital, bounded rationality. Email Contact: gardner@ucs.indiana.edu

Goeree, Jacob K., and Charles A. Holt (1999) “Stochastic Game Theory: For Playing Games, Not Just for Doing Theory,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96(September), 10564-10567. Keywords: experiments, game theory, Nash equilibrium, logit equilibrium, quantal response equilibrium, introspection, coordination, traveler's dilemma, evolution, learning. Abstract: This paper argues that noisy models of introspection, learning, and equilibrium can explain the salient behavior patterns in game experiments, patterns that are not predicted by the Nash equilibrium or its refinements. Models of iterated noisy introspection are used to explain initial choices, models of noisy learning and evolution are used to predict dynamic adjustment paths, and logit equilibrium models explain Nash-invariant treatment effects in steady-state distributions of decisions. Email Contact: jg2n@virginia.edu

Goeree, Jacob K., and Charles A. Holt (1999) “Ten Little Treasures of Game Theory, and Ten Intuitive Contradictions,” University of Virginia, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, game theory, bargaining, matching pennies, traveler's dilemma, coordination, Kreps game, auctions, signaling, extensive form games, backward induction, Nash equilibrium, logit equilibrium, introspection, one shot games. Abstract: The "treasures" are ten static and dynamic games where behavior matches the Nash equilibrium or relevant refinement, and the contradictions are variations of the same game that produces anomalous behavior patterns. In some games, Nash seems to work only by coincidence, e.g. if deviation losses are symmetric or very high. In other games the data are repelled from the Nash prediction and pile up on the opposite side of the set of feasible decisions. Email Contact: jg2n@virginia.edu

Goeree, Jacob K., and Charles A. Holt (1999) “Explaining Anomalous Behavior in Binary-Choice Games: Entry, Voting, Public Goods, and the Volunteer's Dilemma,” University of Virginia, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, game theory, quantal response, binary choice games, volunteer's dilemma, step-level public goods, participation games, voting, market entry, coordination. Abstract: This paper characterizes quantal response equilibria for a general class of N-person binary-choice games: participation, entry, voting, step-level public goods, coordination, and volunteer's dilemma games. The quantal response equilibrium tracks deviations from Nash predictions reported in previous laboratory experiments. Email Contact: jg2n@virginia.edu

Green, Leonard, Paul C. Price, and Merle E. Hamburger (1995) “Prisoner's Dilemma and the Pigeon Control by Immediate Consequences,” Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 641-17. Keywords: experiments, game theory, animal subjects, prisoner's dilemma, pigeons.

Halpin, Stanley M., and Marc Pilisuk (1970) “Prediction and Choice in the Prisoner's Dilemma,” Behavioral Science, 15141-153. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma.

Hardin, Russell (1971) “Collective Action as an Agreeable n-Prisoner's Dilemma,” Behavioral Science, 16472-481. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma.

Hauk, Esther (1998) “Discriminating to Learn to Discriminate,” Pompeu Fabra University, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meetings. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, strategy search, learning, choice of whether to play. Abstract: Subjects play several finite prisoner's dilemma games simultaneously, which allows rejection of the common notion that players can be categorized into distinct "types." Behavior can be characterized as a search for an acceptable strategy. Email Contact: esther.huak@econ.upf.es

Holm, H. J. (1995) “The Prisoners' Dilemma or the Jury's Dilemma? A Popular Story with Dubious Name,” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 151:4 (December), 699-702. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, jury's dilemma.

Kahn, Laurence M., and J. Keith Murnighan (1993) “Conjecture, Uncertainty, and Cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemma Games: Some Experimental Evidence,” Journal of Economic behavior and Organization, 22:1 (September), 91-117. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation.

Kirchkamp, Oliver, Rosemarie Nagel, and Avner Shaked (1998) “Local Interacting Prisoners' Dilemmas,” Manheim University, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meetings. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, local interaction, learning. Abstract: The experiment considers how behavior of subjects in repeated prisoner's dilemma games is affected by the nature of local interaction. Subjects who interact with their neighbors on a circle (in a series of overlapping local neighborhoods) coordinate less frequently on the Pareto efficient outcome than those who interact in fixed non-overlapping groups. Email Contact: oliver@kirchkamp.de

Komorita, S. S., J. A. Hilty, and C. D. Parks (1991) “Reciprocity and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 35:3 (September), 494-518. Keywords: experiments, game theory, social dilemmas, cooperation, reciprocity.

Lave, Lester B. (1962) “An Empirical Approach to the Prisoner's Dilemma,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 76424-436. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation.

Lave, Lester B. (1965) “Factors Affecting Cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma,” Behavioral Science, 1026-38. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation.

Lichbach, Mark Irving (1996) The Cooperator's Dilemma, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Keywords: experiments, game theory, cooperation, social dilemmas, psychology.

Murnighan, J. Keith, and Alvin E. Roth (1983) “Expecting Continued Play in Prisoner's Dilemma Games: A Test of Three Models,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 27279-300. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, probability of continuation. Email Contact: keithm@nwu.edu

Oppenheimer, Joe (1990) “Comment on S. Beckman's `Producer's Dilemma Experiments',” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 14:2 (October), 285-286. Keywords: experiments, game theory, producer's dilemma. Email Contact: joppenhe@bss2.umd.edu

Orbell, John M., and Robyn M. Dawes (1981) “Social Dilemmas,” in Progress in Applied Social Psychology, edited by J. M. Stephenson and J. H. Davis, New York: Wiley, 117-133. Keywords: experiments, game theory, social dilemmas. Email

Ortmann, Andreas, and Lisa K. Tichy (1999) “Gender Differences in the Laboratory: Evidence from Prisoner's Dilemma Games,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 39:3 227-339. Keywords: experiments, game theory, methodology, gender effects.

Pruitt, Dean G. (1970) “Motivational Processes in the Decomposed Prisoner's Dilemma,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 14227-238. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma.

Rapoport, Anatol (1988) “Experiments with N-Person Social Traps I: Prisoner's Dilemma, Weak Prisoner's Dilemma, Volunteer's Dilemma, and Largest Number,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 32:3 (September), 457-472. Keywords: experiments, game theory, social dilemmas, prisoner's dilemma, weak prisoner's dilemma, volunteer's dilemma, largest number.

Rapoport, Amnon, David V. Budescu, Ramzi Suleiman, and Eythan Weg (1992) “Social Dilemmas with Uniformly Distributed Resources,” in Social Dilemmas: Theoretical Issues and Research Findings, edited by W. Liebrand, D. Messick and H. Wilke, New York: Pergamon Press, 43-57. Keywords: experiments, game theory, social dilemmas. Email Contact: arapoport@bpa.arizona.edu

Rapoport, Anatol, and Albert M. Chammah (1965) Prisoner's Dilemma: A Study in Conflict and Cooperation, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation.

Rapoport, Anatol, and Albert M. Chammah (1965) “Sex Differences in Factors Contributing to the Level of Cooperation in a Prisoner's Dilemma Game,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2831-838. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation, gender effects.

Rapoport, Anatol, and Philip Dale (1966) “Models to Prisoner's Dilemma,” Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 3269-286. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma. Abstract: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma

Rapoport, Amnon, and A. Mowshowitz (1966) “Experimental Studies of Stochastic Models for the Prisoner's Dilemma,” Behavioral Science, 11444-458. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, stochastic behavior. Email Contact: arapoport@bpa.arizona.edu

Roth, Alvin E., and J. Keith Murnighan (1978) “Equilibrium Behavior and Repeated Play of the Prisoner's Dilemma,” Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 17189-198. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, repeated play. Email Contact: aroth@hbs.edu

Schwartz-Shea, P., and R. T. Simmons (1990) “The Layered Prisoners' Dilemma: Ingroup versus Macro-efficiency,” Public Choice, 65:1 (April), 61-83. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma.

Selten, Reinhard, and Rolf Stoecker (1986) “End Behavior in Sequences of Finite Prisoner's Dilemma Supergames: A Learning Theory Approach,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 47-70. Keywords: experiments, game theory, backward induction, learning, prisoner's dilemma games. Email Contact: selten@lab.econ1.uni-bonn.de

Tucker, A. W. (1950) “A Two-Person Dilemma,” Stanford University, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma.

Tullock, Gordon (1999) “Non-Prisoner's Dilemma,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 39:4 455-458. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma.

Wu, J., and Robert Axelrod (1995) “How to Cope with Noise in Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma,” Journal of Conflict and Resolution, 39:1 (March), 183-189. Keywords: experiments, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, noise.