Y2K Bibliography of Experimental Economics and Social Science
Contingent Valuation and Elicitation

updated December 29, 1999
Charles A. Holt, cah2k@virginia.edu, suggestions and corrections welcome
(for online and personal use only)

Allen, F. (1987) “Discovering Personal Probabilities when Utility Functions are Unknown,” Management Science, 33542-544. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, probability judgement.

Arrow, Kenneth, Robert Solow, P. Portney, Edward Leamer, Roy Radner, and H. Schuman (1993) “Report of the NOAA Panel of Contingent Valuation,” Federal Register, 58:10 4602-4614. Keywords: experiments, decisions, contingent valuation, referenda, methodology, incentives, hypothetical bias, policy.

Barrios, Carolina (1999) “Eliciting Individual Utility Functions: New and Classical Methods Compared,” Cachan, Discussion Paper, presented at the Fall 1999 European Regional ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, utility, lottery equivalent method, tradeoff method. Abstract: Individuals' utility functions are elicited in several different manners. The new methods based on comparisons of lotteries (tradeoff and lottery equivalent methods) yield consistent utility information, which differs from utility information elicited using classical methods based on comparisons of lotteries and certainty equivalents. Email Contact: barrios@grid.ens-cachan.fr

Becker, Gordon M., Morris H. DeGroot, and Jacob Marschak (1964) “Measuring Utility by a Single-Response Sequential Method,” Behavioral Science, 9(July), 226-232. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, utility.

Belianim, Alexis (1999) “Risk Attitudes and Choice Under Uncertainty: Russian Experimental Data,” University of Manchester, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, decisions, risk preference, elicitation, Russia, international comparisons, subject pool effects.

Bergstrom, J. C., and J. R. Stoll (1989) “Application of Experimental Economics Concepts and Precepts to CVM Field Survey Procedures,” Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, 14:1 (July), 98-109. Keywords: experiments, decisions, contingent valuation, elicitation. Email Contact: tedb@econ.ucsb.edu

Bessler, D. A., and R. G. Nelson (199**) “Subjective Probabilities Elicited Under Proper and Improper Scoring Rules: A Laboratory Test of Predicted Responses,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, ***. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, scoring rules, proper scoring rules.

Bjornstad, David, Ronald Cummings, and Laura Taylor (1997) “A Learning Design for Reducing Hypothetical Bias in the Contingent Valuation Method,” Environmental and Resource Economics, 10:3 207-221. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, contingent valuation, hypothetical bias, learning.

Bobara, Alok, Michael McKee, Robert Berrens, Hank Jenkins-Smith, Carol Silva, and David Brookshire (1998) “Effects of Total Cost and Group Size Information on Willingness to Pay Responses: Open-Ended vs. Dichotomous Choice,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 35:2 142-163. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, willingness to pay, information, dichotomous choice, environmental economics. Email Contact: mckee@unm.edu

Bohm, Peter, J. Linden, and J. Sonnegard (1997) “Eliciting Reservation Prices: Becker-DeGroot-Marschak Mechanism vs. Markets,” Economic Journal, 1071079-1089. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, Becker-DeGroot-Marschak method, BDM. Email Contact: pb@ne.su.se

Boyce, Rebecca R., Thomas C. Brown, Gary H. McClelland, George L. Peterson, and William D. Schulze (1992) “An Experimental Examination of Intrinsic Values as a Source of the WTA-WTP Disparity,” American Economic Review, 82:5 (December), 1366-1373. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, WTA, WTP.

Brier, G. (1950) “Verification of Forecasts Expressed in Terms of Probability,” Monthly Weather Review, 781-3. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, scoring rules, forecasts.

Brookshire, David S., and Donald L. Coursey (1987) “Measuring the Value of a Public Good: An Empirical Comparison of Elicitation Procedures,” American Economic Review, 77:4 (September), 554-566. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, public goods. Email Contact: brookshi@unm.edu

Brookshire, David S., Donald L. Coursey, and Howard Kunreuther (1991) “Compensation Schemes for Negative Externalities: A Field Experiment,” in Research in Experimental Economics, Vol. 4, edited by R. M. Isaac, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 81-106. Keywords: experiments, public, externalities, field experiment, compensation schemes, contingent valuation, willingness to pay, WTA/WTP, auctions. Email Contact: brookshi@unm.edu

Brookshire, David S., Donald L. Coursey, and William D. Schulze (1989) “Experiments in the Solicitation of Private and Public Values: An Overview,” in Advances in Behavioral Economics, edited by L. Green and J. Kagel, Norwood, N. J.: Ablex, ***. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, willingness to pay, WTP/WTA, survey. Email Contact: brookshi@unm.edu

Brookshire, David S., and T. D. Crocker (1981) “The Advantages of Contingent Valuation Methods for Benefit-Cost Analysis,” Public Choice, 36:1 235-252. Keywords: experiments, decisions, contingent valuation. Email Contact: brookshi@unm.edu

Cherry, Todd L., Thomas D. Crocker, and Jason F. Shogren (1999) “Rationality Spillovers,” University of Wyoming, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, markets, asset markets, rationality, preference reversal, contingent valuation. Email Contact: tlcherry@uwyo.edu

Coller, Maribeth, and Melonie Williams (1999) “Eliciting Individual Discount Rates,” Experimental Economics, 2forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, discount rates. Email Contact: mbeth@darla.badm.sc.edu

Combs, J. P., and et al.*** (1993) “Matching Grants and Public Goods: A Closed-Ended Contingent Valuation Experiment,” Public Finance Quarterly, 21:2 (April), 178-195. Keywords: experiments, public, contingent valuation, matching grants.

Coursey, Donald L., John L. Hovis, and William D. Schulze (1987) “The Disparity between Willingness to Accept and Willingness to Pay Measures of Value,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 102:3 (August), 679-690. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, WTP/WTA, methodology. Email Contact: wds3@cornell.edu

Coursey, Donald L., and William D. Schulze (1986) “The Application of Laboratory Experimental Economics in the
Contingent Valuation of Public Goods,” Public Choice, 4947-68. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, WTP/WTA, methodology. Email Contact: wds3@cornell.edu

Cummings, Ronald, and Laura Taylor (1998) “Does Realism Matter in Contingent Valuation?,” Land Economics, 74:2 203-215. Keywords: experiments, decisions, contingent valuation, elicitation, realism. Email Contact: prcrgc@langate.gsu.edu

Cummings, Ronald G., David S. Brookshire, and William D. Schulze (1986) Valuing Environmental Goods: An Assessment of the Contingent Valuation Method, Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Allanheld. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, contingent valuation. Email Contact: prcrgc@langate.gsu.edu

Cummings, Ronald G., Steven Elliott, Glenn Harrison, and James Murphy (1997) “Are Hypothetical Referenda Incentive Compatible?,” Journal of Political Economy, 105:3 (June), 609-621. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, incentives, hypothetical referenda. Email Contact: prcrgc@langate.gsu.edu

Cummings, Ronald G., Glenn W. Harrison, and E. Elisabet Rutstrom (1995) “Homegrown Values and Hypothetical Surveys: Is the Dichotomous Choice Approach Incentive Compatible?,” American Economic Review, 85:1 260-266. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, contingent valuation, dichotomous choice. Email Contact: prcrgc@langate.gsu.edu

Cummings, Ronald G., and Laura O. Taylor (1999) “Unbiased Value Estimates for Environmental Goods: A Cheap Talk Design for the Contingent Valuation Method,” American Economic Review, 89:3 (June), ***. Keywords: experiments, decisions, contingent valuation, hypothetical versus real incentives, cheap talk admonitions. Abstract: A warning about the likelihood of overstating valuations in hypothetical elicitation settings is enough to eliminate most of the hypothetical bias in the context considered. Email Contact: prcrgc@langate.gsu.edu

Eisenberger, R., and Martin Weber (1995) “Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Accept for Risky and Ambiguous Lotteries,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 10223-233. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, willingness to pay, WTP/WTA, risk preferences. Email Contact: weber@bank.bwl.uni-mannheim

Farquher, Peter H. (1984) “Utility Assessment Methods,” Management Science, 30(November), 1283-1300. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, utility.

Fong, Christina, and Kevin A. McCabe (1999) “Elicited Values for Risky Assets: An Experimental Investigation,” University of Arizona, Discussion Paper, presented at the Spring 1999 Public Choice Meetings. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, risky assets, uncertainty.

Fox, J., Jason F. Shogren, Dermot Hayes, and J. Kliebenstein (1998) “CVM-X: Calibrating Contingent Values with Experimental Auction Markets,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 80455-465. Keywords: experiments, decisions, contingent valuation, auctions. Email Contact: jramses@uwyo.edu

Friedman, Daniel (1983) “Effective Probabilistic Scoring Rules for Probabilistic Forecasts,” Management Science, 29:4 447-454. Keywords: experiments, decisions, scoring rules, elicitation, forecasts. Email Contact: dan@cats.ucsc.edu

Gillette, Anne B., Douglas E. Stevens, Susan G. Watts, and Williams Arlington W. (1999) “Price and Volume Reactions to Public Information Releases: An Experimental Approach Incorporating Traders' Subjective Beliefs,” ***, forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, markets, asset markets, information, price formation, public information, call markets, double auction markets, rational expectations, elicitation, forecasts, no-trade theorem. Abstract: Call market and double auctions with long-lived assets are used to study individual forecast and trading decisions. Each asset share paid a dividend at the end of period 15 that was the sum of five random draws that are publicly revealed at pre-announced intervals between trading periods. Trade seems to be motivated by differential processing of public information and by short term speculation.` Email Contact: agillette@gsu.edu

Gregory, R., and L. Furby (1987) “Auctions, Experiments, and Contingent Valuation,” Public Choice, 55:3 (October), 273-289. Keywords: experiments, decisions, contingent valuation, auctions.

Hanemann, W. Michael (1991) “Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Accept: How Much Can They Differ?,” American Economic Review, 81:3 (June), 635-647. Keywords: experiments, decisions, willingness to pay, willingness to accept.

Hanley, N. D. (1989) “Valuing Non-market Goods Using Contingent Valuation,” Journal of Economic Surveys, 3:3 235-252. Keywords: experiments, decisions, contingent valuation.

Harless, David W. (1989) “More Laboratory Evidence on the Disparity between Willingness to Pay and Compensation Demanded,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 11:3 (May), 359-379. Keywords: experiments, decisions, willingness to pay, willingness to accept. Email Contact: dwharless@vcu.edu

Harrison, Glenn W. (1992) “Valuing Public Goods with the Contingent Valuation Method: A Critique,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 23:3 (November), 248-257. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, contingent valuation, public, methodology. Email Contact: harrison@darla.badm.sc.edu

Harrison, Glenn W., Morten Lau, and Melonie Williams (1998) “Estimating Individual Discount Rates in Denmark,” University of South Carolina, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meetings. Keywords: experiments, decisions, discount rates, elicitation, socio-economic determinants, Denmark. Abstract: Monetary incentives are used to elicit individual discount rates in field experiments. The effects of socio-economic variables are considered. Email Contact: mil@em.dk

Harrison, Glenn W., and E. Elisabet Rutström (1985) “Experimental Measurement of Utility by a Sequential Method,” University of New Mexico, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, utility. Email Contact: harrison@darla.badm.sc.edu

Hershey, J., and H. Schoemaker (1985) “Probability versus Certainty Equivalence Methods in Utility Measurement,” Management Science, 311213-1231. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, certainty equivalence.

Hoffman, Elizabeth, and Matthew Spitzer (1990) “The Divergence Between Willingness-to-Pay and Willingness-to-Accept Measures of Values,” California Institute of Technology, Social Science Working Paper 755. Keywords: experiments, decisions, willingness to pay, willingness to accept. Email Contact: ehoffman@uic.edu

Holt, Charles A. (1986) “Scoring Rules for Eliciting Subjective Probability and Utility Functions,” in Bayesian Inference and Decision Techniques: Essays in Honor of Bruno de Finetti, edited by P.K. Goel and A. Zellner, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 279-290. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, scoring rules, proper scoring rules. Abstract This paper develops a group of related scoring rules that are informative despite the fact that they are generally not "proper," i.e. the actual subjective distribution must be inferred from the subject's responses. The parallel elicitation of utility is also discussed.
Email Contact: holt@virginia.edu

Irwin, J. R., Paul Slovic, Sarah Lichtenstein, and G. McClelland (1993) “Preference Reversals and the Measurement of Environmental Values,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 6:1 (January), 5-18. Keywords: experiments, decisions, preference reversals, elicitation, environmental economics.

Johannesson, M., B. Liljas, and P. O. Johansson (1998) “An Experimental Comparison of Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation Questions and Real Purchase Decisions,” Applied Economics, 30:5 (May), 643-647. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, contingent valuation.

Kachelmeier, Steven J., and Mohamed Shehata (1992) “Examining Risk Preferences Under High Monetary Incentives: Experimental Evidence from the People's Republic of China,” American Economic Review, 82:5 (December), 1120-1141. Keywords: experiments, decisions, risk preference, elicitation, high incentives, international comparisons, subject pool effects, China. Email Contact: kach@mail.utexas.edu

Kadane, J. B., and R. L. Winkler (1988) “Separating Probability Elicitation from Utilities,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83:402 (June), 357-363. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, risk attitudes, methodology.

Kahneman, Daniel, and Jack L. Knetsch (1992) “Contingent Valuation and the Value of Public Goods: Reply,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 22:1 (January), 90-94. Keywords: experiments, decisions, contingent valuation, elicitation. Email Contact: kahneman@wws.princeton.edu

Kamecke, Ulrich (1998) “Competition, Cooperation, and Envy in a Simple English Auction,” Humboldt University, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meetings. Keywords: experiments, auctions, auctions, envy, Nash equilibrium, common knowledge of "private value". Abstract: Subjects in an English auction are told in advance who has the highest willingness to pay. Some bidding above value is attributed to envy or inequality aversion. Email Contact: kamecke@wiwi.hu-berlin.de

Kanninen, B. J. (1993) “Design of Sequential Experiments for Contingent Valuation Studies,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 25:1 (Part 2 July), S1-S11. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, contingent valuation, sequential choices.

Karni, Edi, and Zvi Safra (1987) “'Preference Reversal' and the Observability of Preferences by Experimental Methods,” Econometrica, 55:3 (May), 675-685. Keywords: experiments, decisions, preference reversals, elicitation.

Kealy, M. J., M. Montgomery, and J. F. Dovidio (1990) “Reliability and Predictive Validity of Contingent Values: Does the Nature of the Good Matter?,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 19:3 (November), 244-263. Keywords: experiments, decisions, contingent valuation, elicitation.

Knetsch, Jack L. (1997) “Evaluation and Environmental Policies: Recent Behavioral Findings and Further Implications,” in Sustainability and Global Environmental Policy: New Perspectives, edited by A. Dragun and K. Jakobsson, Cheltenham, U.K.: Edgar Elgar, 193-212. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, environmental economics. Email

Knetsch, Jack L. (1999) “Environmental Valuations and Standard Theory: Behavioral Findings, Context Dependence, and Implication,” in The International Yearbook of Environmental and Resource Economics, 2000/2001, edited by T. Teitenberg and E. Folmer, Northampton, Mass.: Edward Elgar, forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, contingent valuation, context dependence, environmental economics. Email

Knetsch, Jack L., and J. A. Sinden (1984) “Willingness to Pay and Compensation Demanded: Experimental Evidence of an Unexpected Disparity in Measures of Value,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 99:3 (August), 507-521. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, willingness to pay.

Knetsch, Jack L., and J. A. Sinden (1987) “The Persistence of Evaluation Disparities,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 102:3 (August), 691-695. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, willingness to pay.

Knez, Marc, and Vernon L. Smith (1987) “Hypothetical Valuations and Preference Reversals in the Context of Asset Trading,” in Laboratory Experimentation in Economics, Six Points of View, edited by A. E.. Roth, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 131-154. Keywords: experiments, decisions, incentives, preference reversals, willingness to pay, willingness to accept, markets, asset markets, double auctions, rationality, hypothetical valuations, dominance. Email

Krahnen, J. P., C. Rieck, and E. Theissen (1997) “Inferring Risk Attitudes from Certainty Equivalents: Some Lessons from an Experimental Study,” Journal of Economic Psychology, 18:5 (September), 469-486. Keywords: experiments, decisions, risk preferences, certainty equivalents, elicitation.

Kruse, Jamie Brown, Howard Kunreuther, and Kevin Simmons (1999) “Risk Mitigation: Individual and Market Behavior,” Texas Tech University, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1999 ESA Meetings. Keywords: experiments, decisions, risk, insurance, elicitation, Vickrey auctions. Email Contact: jamie.kruse@ttu.edu

Kurz, M (1974) “Experimental Approach to the Determination of the Demand for Public Goods,” Journal of Public Economics, 3:4 (November), 329-348. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, public goods, hypothetical incentives.

List, John A. (1999) “A Field Test of the Cheap Talk Valuation Design,” University of Central Florida, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, field experiments, decisions, contingent valuation, real incentives, hypothetical bias, cheap talk admonitions about hypothetical bias, professional dealer subjects, subject pool comparisons, second price auctions. Abstract: A second price auction for sports cards is used to elicit valuations under three incentive structures: real, hypothetical, and hypothetical-with-warnings about overstating values. The cheap talk warning eliminated hypothetical bias in non-professional subjects, but the bids of card dealers decline sharply with real incentives relative to the cheap-talk (hypothetical incentives) treatment. Email Contact: John.List@bus.ucf.edu

List, John A., M. Margolis, and Jason F. Shogren (1998) “Hypothetical-Actual Bid Calibration in a Multi-Good Auction,” Economics Letters, 60:3 (September), 263-268. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, calibration of hypothetical bids, auction. Email Contact: John.List@bus.ucf.edu

List, John A., and Jason Shogren (1999) “Calibration of Willingness-to-Accept,” University of Central Florida, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, willingness to accept, calibration. Email Contact: John.List@bus.ucf.edu

List, John A., and Jason F. Shogren (1998) “Calibration of the Difference Between Actual and Hypothetical Valuations in a Field Experiment,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 37:2 (October), 193-205. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, hypothetical valuations, calibration, field experiments. Abstract: Elicitation of hypothetical bids is done in conjunction with obtaining actual bids in a field setting, in order to learn how to "calibrate" hypothetical bids in other contexts. The extent of the needed calibration turns out to be sensitive to factors such as the presence of other goods in the auction, i.e. calibration is context specific. Email Contact: John.List@bus.ucf.edu

List, John A., and Jason F. Shogren (1998) “The Deadweight Loss of Christmas: Comment,” American Economic Review, 88:5 1350-1355. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, hypothetical bias, methodology. Email Contact: John.List@bus.ucf.edu

Loomis, John, George Peterson, Patricia Champ, Thomas Brown, and Beatrice Lucero (1998) “Paired Comparison Estimates of Willingness to Accept Versus Contingent Valuation Estimates of Willingness to Pay,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 35:4 501-515. Keywords: experiments, decisions, contingent valuation, willingness to accept, WTA/WTP.

Luce, R. D., B. A. Mellers, and S. Chang (1993) “Is Choice the Correct Primitive? On Using Certainty Equivalents and Reference Levels to Predict Choices among Gambles,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 6:2 (April), 115-143. Keywords: experiments, decisions, lottery choice, elicitation.

MacCrimmon, K. R., and M. Toda (1969) “The Experimental Determination of Indifference Curves,” The Review of Economic Studies, 36:(4) (108) (October), 433-451. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, indifference curves. Email Contact: maccrimmon@law.ubc.ca

McDaniels, T. L. (1992) “Reference Points, Loss Aversion, and Contingent Values for Auto Safety,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 5:2 (May), 187-200. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, contingent valuation, auto safety.

Mera, Koichi (1969) “Experimental Determination of Relative Marginal Utilities,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 83:3 (August), 464-477. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, marginal utility.

Milon, J. W. (1989) “Contingent Valuation Experiments for Strategic Behavior,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 17:3 (November), 293-308. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, contingent valuation.

Mitchell, Robert Cameron, and Richard T. Carson (1989) Using Surveys to Value Public Goods: The Contingent Valuation Method, Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, contingent valuation, public goods.

Morrison, G. C. (1997) “Resolving Differences in Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Accept: Comment,” American Economic Review, 87:1 (March), 236-240. Keywords: experiments, decisions, willingness to pay, WTP/WTA.

Morrison, G. C. (1998) “Understanding the Disparity between WTP and WTA: Endowment Effect, Substitutability, or Imprecise Preferences?,” Economics Letters, 59:2 (May), 189-194. Keywords: experiments, decisions, willingness to pay, WTP/WTA, endowment effects, bounded rationality.

Morrison, William G., and E. Elisabet Ruström (1999) “Reciprocity and Psychological Equilibria in an Investment Game Experiment with Belief Elicitation,” Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1999 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, game theory, reciprocity, trust, psychology, belief elicitation, warm glow altruism. Email Contact: bmorriso@mach1.wlu.ca

Mosteller, Frederick, and Philip Nogee (1951) “An Experimental Measurement of Utility,” Journal of Political Economy, 59:5 (October), 371-404. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, utility.

Neil, Helen, Ronald Cummings, Philip Ganderton, Glenn Harrison, and Thomas McGuckin (1994) “Hypothetical Surveys and Real Economic Commitments,” Land Economics, 70:2 . Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, hypothetical bias, methodology.

Nelson, R. G., and D. A. Bessler (1989) “Subjective Probabilities and Scoring Rules: Experimental Evidence,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 71:2 (May), 363-369. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, scoring rules.

Newbery, D. (1974) “Experimental Approach to the Determination of the Demand for Public Goods: A Comment,” Journal
of Public Economics, 3:4 (November), 425-429. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, public goods, hypothetical incentives.

Nyarko, Yaw, and Andrew Schotter (1998) “Equilibria in Beliefs and Our Belief in Equilibria,” New York University, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, game theory, beliefs, scoring rule, elicitation. Abstract: Subjects in the experiment play a game and also report beliefs about the other person's play, via a scoring rule procedure. Belief data are used to evaluate equilibrium and learning theories. Email Contact:
schotter@fasecon.econ.nyu.edu

Offerman, Theo, and Joep Sonnemans (1998) “What's Causing Overreaction? An Experimental Investigation of Recency and the Hot Hand Effect,” University of Amsterdam, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, decisions, recency bias, hot hand effect, scoring rule, elicitation. Abstract: The experiment is designed to distinguish between "recency bias" (overweighting recent information) and the "hot-hand effect" (searching for autocorrelations in the data). The observed overreactions are more consistent with the hot-hand effect. Email Contact: theoo@fee.uva.nl

Offerman, Theo, Joep Sonnemans, and Arthur Schram (1999) “Belief Learning in Public Good Games,” Economic Inquiry, forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, public, voluntary contributions, belief learning, belief elicitation, errors. Email Contact: theoo@fee.uva.nl

Randall, A., J. P. Hoehn, and D. S. Brookshire (1983) “Contingent Valuation Surveys for Evaluating Environmental Assets,” Natural Resources Journal, 23:3 (July), 635-648. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, contingent valuation.

Rousseas, Stephen W., and Albert G. Hart (1951) “Experimental Verification of a Composite Indifference Map,” Journal of Political Economy, 59:4 (August), 288-318. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, utility.

Royden, Halsey L., Patrick Suppes, and Karol Walsh (1959) “A Model for the Experimental Measurement of the Utility of Gambling,” Behavioral Science, 411-18. Keywords: experiments, decisions, utility, elicitation.

Ruffle, Bradley J., and Orit Tykocinski (1998) “Unwrapping the Deadweight Loss of Gift Giving,” Ben-Gurion University, Discussion Paper, presented at the Summer 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, decisions, survey methods, welfare, gift giving, elicitation. Abstract: This paper uses laboratory methods to evaluate the survey questions used in previous studies of the welfare effects of gift giving. The opposite findings of previous studies are attributed to differences in the questions used to elicit gift valuations. Email Contact: bradley@bgumail.bgu.ac.il

Safra, Z., U. Segal, and A. Spivak (1990) “The Becker-DeGroot-Marschak Mechanism and Nonexpected Utility: A Testable Approach,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 3:2 (June), 177-190. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, BDM procedure.

Savage, I. (1993) “An Empirical Investigation into the Effect of Psychological Perceptions on the Willingness-to-Pay to Reduce Risk,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 6:1 (January), 75-90. Keywords: experiments, decisions, willingness to pay.

Savage, Leonard J. (1971) “Elicitation of Personal Probabilities and Expectations,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 66:336 (December), 783-801. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation.

Shogren, Jason F., and Dermot J. Hayes (1997) “Resolving Differences in Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Accept: Reply,” American Economic Review, 87:1 (March), 241-244. Keywords: experiments, decisions, willingness to pay, WTP/WTA. Email Contact: jramses@uwyo.edu

Shogren, Jason F. ****, S. Y. Shin, Dermot J. Hayes, and J. B. Kliebenstein (1994) “Resolving Differences in Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Accept,” American Economic Review, 84:1 (March), 255-270. Keywords: experiments, decisions, willingness to pay, willingness to accept. Email Contact: jramses@uwyo.edu

Smith, Cedric A. B. (1961) “Consistency in Statistical Inference and Decision,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 23:1 1-25. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation. Email Contact: vls@econlab.arizona.edu

Swallow, S. K. (1994) “Value Elicitation in Laboratory Markets: Discussion and Applicability to Contingent Valuation,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 76:5 (December), 1096-1100. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, contingent valuation.

Taylor, Laura (1998) “Incentive Compatible Referenda and the Valuation of Environmental Goods,” Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, 27:2 132-139. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, referenda, environmental goods, contingent valuation. Email Contact: prclot@langate.gsu.edu

Toda, Masanao, and Kenneth R. MacCrimmon (1972) “The Efficient Determination of True Preference Equivalences,” in Contributions to Experimental Economics, Vol. 3, edited by Heinz Sauermann, Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 560-584. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation. Email

Unnevehr, Laurian J., and Anne P. Villamil (1999) “Long-term Investment in Health: Consumer Information and Functional Foods,” University of Illinois, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, health. Abstract: A Vickrey auction is used to elicit willingness to pay of foods with differing health benefits, and senior citizens are more willing to pay for a cookie with a soy additive that lowers cholestrol. Email Contact: avillamil@2.uiuc.edu

Wallis, W. Allen, and Milton Friedman (1942) “The Empirical Derivation of Indifference Functions,” in Studies in Mathematical Economics and Econometrics in Memory of Henry Schultz, edited by O. Lange, F. McIntyre and T. Yntema, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, . Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, indifference curves. Email

Wilcox, Nathaniel T. (1993) “On a Lottery Pricing Anomaly: Time Tells the Tale,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 7:3 (December), 311-324. Keywords: experiments, decisions, elicitation, decision time. Email Contact: econd1@uhupvm1.uh.edu