Y2K Bibliography of Experimental Economics and Social Science
Classroom Games -- Using Experiments in Teaching

updated December 29, 1999
Charles A. Holt, cah2k@virginia.edu, suggestions and corrections welcome
(for online and personal use only)


Adams, Paul, Brian Kluger, and Mark McBride (1998) “Illustrating the Capital Asset Pricing Model: A Classroom Asset Market,” Miami University of Ohio, Discussion Paper, presented at the Fall 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, asset markets, capital asset pricing. Email Contact: brian.kluger@uc.edu

Anderson, Lisa, and Charles A. Holt (1996) “Classroom Games: Information Cascades,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10:4 (Summer), 187-193. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, decisions, information cascades, Bayes' rule. Abstract: This paper describes a simple classroom game in which students rely on others' information as cascades form. The experiment can be used to stimulate discussions of Bayes' rule and informational inferences in interactive contexts. Email Contact: lrande@mail.wm.edu

Anderson, Lisa, and Charles A. Holt (1996) “Classroom Games: Understanding Bayes' Rule,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10:2 (Spring), 179-187. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, decisions, Bayes' rule, decisions. Abstract: This paper presents a simple counting heuristic that can be used to teach Bayes' rule via a classroom experiment. Email Contact: lrande@mail.wm.edu

Ball, Sheryl B., and Charles A. Holt (1998) “Classroom Games: Bubbles in an Asset Market,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12:1 (Winter), 207-218. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, asset markets, speculation, bubbles, discounting. Abstract: The classroom game describes a repeated asset market with stochastic dividends that can be used to motivate subsequent discussions of price bubbles, fundamental value, and expectations. Email Contact: sball@vt.edu

Ball, Sheryl B. (1998) “Research, Teaching, and Practice in Experimental Economics: A Progress Report and Review: Review Article,” Southern Economic Journal, 64:3 (January), 772-779. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, survey. Email Contact: sball@vt.edu

Becker, William E., and Michael Watts, eds. (1998) Teaching Economics to Undergraduates: Alternatives to Chalk and Talk, Northampton, Mass.: Edward Elgar. Keywords: experiments, classroom games. Abstract: This is a collection of papers on nontraditional teaching methods for economics, including classroom experiments.

Bell, Christopher R. (1993) “Using a Noncomputerized Version of Williams and Walker's Stock Market Experiment in a Finance Course,” Journal of Economic Education, 24:4 (Fall), 317-323. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, asset markets.

Bergstrom, Theodore C., and John H. Miller (1997) Experiments with Economic Principles, New York: McGraw-Hill. Keywords: experiments, classroom games. Abstract: This book presents a series of classroom experiments, along with associated reading and decision sheets. Email Contact: tedb@econ.ucsb.edu

Bernard, John C., and William Schulze (2000) “Teaching Marginal Cost, Supply and Efficiency with an Englis Auction Experiment,” Journal of Economic Education, 31:1 (Winter), forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, auctions, English auction, multi-unit auction, marginal cost.

Blank, S. C. (1985) “Effectiveness of Role Playing, Case Studies, and Simulation Games in Teaching Agricultural Economics,” Western Journal Agricultural Economics, 10:1 (July), 55-62. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Boehlje, M. D., and V. R. Eidman (1978) “Simulation and Gaming Models: Application in Teaching and Extension Programs,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 60:5 (December), 987-992. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Breen, W., and J. Boyd (1976) “Classroom Simulation as a Pedagogical Device in Teaching Money and Banking,” Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 11:4 (November), 595-606. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Brock, John R. (1991) “Teaching Tools: A Public Goods Experiment for the Classroom,” Economic Inquiry, 29:2 (April), 395-401. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, public, voluntary contributions.

Cameron, N. E. (1997) “Teaching Tools: Simulating Money Supply Creation in Class,” Economic Inquiry, 35:3 (July), 686-693. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, macroeconomics, money.

Capra, C. Monica, and Charles A. Holt (1998) “Classroom Experiments: A Prisoner's Dilemma,” Journal of Economic Education, forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, game theory, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation. Abstract: This paper describes how to implement a classroom prisoner's dilemma game with playing cards. Suggestions for leading the classroom discussion are included. Email Contact: holt@virginia.edu

Capra, C. Monica, and Charles A. Holt (1999) “Coordination,” Southern Economic Journal, 65:3 (January), 630-636. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, game theory, coordination games. Abstract: Playing cards are used to implement a simple classroom coordination game. Instructions and suggestions for the follow-up discussion are provided. Email Contact: holt@virginia.edu

Capra, C. Monica, Rosario Gomez, Jacob K. Goeree, and Charles A. Holt (2000) “Predation, Asymmetric Information, and Strategic Behavior in the Classroom: An Experimental Approach to the Teaching of Industrial Organization,” International Journal of Industrial Organization, 18:1 (January), 205-225. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, predatory pricing, posted offer markets, entry, multiple markets. Abstract: This paper describes a classroom predatory pricing game, and surveys a series of other classroom games motivated by industrial organization issues. Email Contact: jg2n@virginia.edu

Cardell, N. S., and et al.*** (1996) “Laboratory-Based Experimental and Demonstration Initiatives in Teaching Undergraduate Economics,” American Economic Review, 86:2 (May), 454-459***. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, teaching effectiveness.

Cohen, Kalvin J., and et al.*** (1964) The Carnegie Tech Management Game: An Experiment in Business Education, Homewood, Ill: Irwin. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Delemeester, Greg, and John Neral (1995) Classroom Experiments to Accompany Taylor's Economics: A User's Guide, Boston: Houghton Miffin. Keywords: experiments, classroom games. Email Contact: delemeeg@marietta.edu

DeYoung, Robert (1993) “Market Experiments: The Laboratory Versus the Classroom,” Journal of Economic Education, 24:4 (Fall), 335-351. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, methodology. Abstract: The paper surveys the use of classroom experiments and discusses an example.

Emery, E. D., and T. P. Enger (1972) “Computer Gaming and Learning in an Introductory Economics Course,” Journal of Economic Education, 3:2 (Spring), 75-85. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, computerized games.

Fels, Rendigs* (1993) “This is What I Do, and I Like It,” Journal of Economic Education, Special Issue on Classroom Experimental Economics, 34365-370. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Fels, Rendigs (1993) “This is What I Do, and I Like It,” Journal of Economic Education, 24:4 (Fall), 365-370. Keywords: experiments, classroom games. Abstract: The author discusses the use of economics experiments as a teaching device.

Garratt, Rod (1998) “A Free Entry and Exit Experiment,” University of California at Santa Barbara, Discussion Paper, presented at the Fall 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, entry, exit. Email Contact: garratt@econ.ucsb.edu

Giraud, Kelly L., and Mark L. Hermann (1999) “The Allocation of Renewable Resources Under Different Property Rights and Regulation Schemes,” University of Alaska Fairbanks, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, public, common pool resources, environmental economics, fisheries.

Goeree, Jacob K., and Charles A. Holt (1999) “Rent Seeking and the Inefficiency of Non-Market Allocations,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13:3 (Summer), 217-226. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, game theory, rent seeking, public goods, auctions. Abstract: This classroom game places students into a rent-seeking competition that illustrates the effects of potentially wasteful competition in non-market allocations. The paper contains detailed instructions on running the game and leading the subsequent discussion so that students discover the major insights for themselves. Email Contact: jg2n@virginia.edu

Goeree, Jacob K., and Charles A. Holt (1999) “Employment and Prices in a Simple Macro-Economy,” Southern Economic Journal, 65:3 (January), 637-647. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, macroeconomics, employment, fiat money, labor markets. Abstract: Students are placed in the roles of worker/consumers and producer/consumers in macroeconomy with fiat money. The suggested analysis and classroom discussion can highlight features of involuntary unemployment, monetary shocks, etc. Email Contact: jg2n@virginia.edu

Gremmen, Hans, and Jan Potters (1997) “Assessing the Efficiency of Gaming in Economics Education,” Journal of Economic Education, 28:4 (Fall), 291-303. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, effectiveness. Abstract: This paper reports an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of using classroom experiments. Participation in a macroeconomics game increased student performance. Email Contact: j.j.m.potters@kub.nl

Grobelnik, Marko, Vesna Prasnikar, and Charles A. Holt (1999) “Classroom Games: Strategic Interaction on the Internet,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13:2 (Spring), 211-220. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, game theory, extensive form games, common pool resources.

Hagg, I., and J. Johanson (1975) “The Business Game as a Research Tool -Experiments on the Effects of Received
Information on the Decision Process-II,” Swedish Journal of Economics, 77:3 351-358. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, teams, game theory.

Halstead, J. (1989) “SOVPLAN: An In-Class Simulation of Central Planning,” Economic Inquiry, 27:2 (April), 357-361. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, central planning.

Haupert, M. J. (1996) “An Experiment in Comparative Advantage,” Journal of Economic Education, 27:1 (Winter), 37-44. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, comparative advantage. Abstract: Students in the classroom game must specialize in production and trade with others in order to reach a pre-assigned "consumption goal."

Haupert, Michael J. (1996) “Labor Market Experiment,” Journal of Economic Education, 27:4 (Fall), 300-308. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, macroeconomics, labor, search. Abstract: The classroom exercise, designed for an introductory macro class, lets students search for a high wage from an unknown distribution under varying conditions reflecting changes in search costs, unemployment benefits, etc.

Hazlett, Denise, and Jeela Ganje (1999) “An Experiment with Official and Parallel Foreign Exchange Markets in a Developing Country,” Journal of Economic Education, 30:4 (Fall), 392-401. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, international trade, exchange rate controls, markets. Abstract: The students in this classroom game buy and sell foreign exchange in a country with a government-imposed exchange rate ceiling designed to keep the price of domestic currency high. The focus is on inefficiencies and the role of the black and grey (unofficial) markets that arise. Email Contact: hazlett@whitman.edu

Hazlett, Denise (2000) “An Experimental Education Market with Positive Externalities,” Journal of Economic Education, 31:1 (Winter), forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, classroom games. Abstract: This classroom game lets students trading in a simulated market learn about how externalities can create inefficient outcomes, and how new markets for externality-producing activities can reduce these inefficiencies. Email Contact: hazlett@whitman.edu

Hemenway, D., R. L. Moore, and J. Whitney (1987) “The Oligopoly Game,” Economic Inquiry, 25:4 (October), 727-730. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, oligopoly, quantity competition.

Hester, D. D. (1991) “Instructional Simulation of a Commercial Banking System,” Journal of Economic Education, 22:2 (Spring), 111-143. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, banking.

Holt, Charles A. (1996) “Classroom Games: Trading in a Pit Market,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10:1 193-203. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, pit market, markets, efficiency. Abstract: This classroom game puts students into a pit market trading game in which the results can be used to help students discover the laws of supply and demand for themselves. The paper is written to help instructors (or students) run the experiment and lead the discussion. Email Contact: holt@virginia.edu

Holt, Charles A., and Susan K. Laury (1997) “Classroom Games: Voluntary Provision of a Public Good,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11:4 (Fall), 209-215. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, public, voluntary contributions, altruism. Abstract: This paper offers suggestions for how to run a public goods experiment in class and how to lead the subsequent discussion. Email Contact: holt@virginia.edu, slaury@gsu.edu

Holt, Charles A., and Tanga McDaniel (1998) “Experimental Economics in the Classroom,” in Teaching Undergraduate Economics: A Handbook for Instructors, edited by W. B. Walstad and P. Saunders, New York: McGraw Hill, 257-268. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, methodology, survey. Abstract The paper provides an overview of the usefulness of classroom experiments. Email Contact: holt@virginia.edu

Holt, Charles A., and Roger Sherman (1999) “Classroom Games: A. Market for Lemons,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13:1 (Winter), 205-214. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, information, asymmetric information, lemons markets, quality. Abstract: The classroom game described here puts students in the roles of buyers and sellers in a market with asymmetric information about product quality, which is selected by sellers. Qualities typically fall to inefficiently low levels, which can serve as a platform for the discussion of institutions that arise to deal with "lemon's effects." Email Contact: holt@virginia.edu

Holt, Charles A. (1999) “Teaching Economics with Classroom Experiments: A Symposium,” Southern Economics Journal, 65:3 (January), 603-610. Keywords: experiments, classroom games. Abstract: This paper presents a philosophy of teaching that relies on classroom experiments, which in small classes can be planned and conducted by the students themselves. It is argued that this active mix of teaching and learning is highly effective in raising the confidence in what is being learned, both for students and their professors. Email Contact: holt@virginia.edu

Holt, Charles A., and Lisa R. Anderson (1999) “Agendas and Strategic Voting,” Southern Economic Journal, 65:3 (January), 622-629. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, public, voting, agendas, strategic voting, naive voting. Abstract: Playing cards are used to set up a committee voting game that illustrates the agenda effects and the difference between strategic and myopic voting for subsequent class discussion. Email Contact: holt@virginia.edu

Joseph, M. (1965) “Role Playing in Teaching Economics,” American Economic Review, 55(May), 556-565. Keywords:
experiments, classroom games, quantity competition.

Joseph, M. L. (1970) “Game and Simulation Experiments,” Journal of Economic Education, 1:2 (Spring), 91-6. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Kagan, Gary, Herbert Mayo, and Robert Stout (1995) “Risk-Adjusted Returns and Stock Market Games,” Journal of Economic Education, 26:1 (Winter), 39-50. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, asset markets, risk. Abstract: This paper discusses how to use risk reduction measures to reward students participating in a classroom stock market game.

Karpoff, Jonathan M. (1984) “Barter Trading as a Microeconomics Teaching Device,” Journal of Economic Education, 15:3 (Summer), 226-236. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, barter. Abstract: Barter with real goods is used in a classroom game.

Keating, B. (1979) “Simulation Gaming in the Managerial Economics Course,” Journal of Economic Education, 10:2 (Spring), 65-67. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Kiesling, H. J. (1990) “Pedagogical Uses of the Public Goods Concept in Economics,” Journal of Economic Education, 21:2 (Spring), 137-147. Keywords: experiments, classroom games**, public, voluntary contributions.

King, P. G., and R. M. LaRoe (1991) “The Laboratory-Based Economics Curriculum,” Journal of Economic Education, 22:3 285-292. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Laury, Susan K., and Charles A. Holt (1999) “Making Money,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, (Fall), forthcoming. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, money supply, macroeconomics. Abstract: The classroom game puts students in the roles of banker, depositor, and central banker to illustrate the money creation process. Email Contact: slaury@gsu.edu, holt@virginia.edu

Laury, Susan K., and Charles A. Holt (1999) “Multi-Market Equilibrium and the Law of One Price,” Southern Economic Journal, 65:3 (January), 611-621. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, multiple markets, arbitrage, speculation, law of one price, efficiency. Abstract: The classroom game described sets up two markets with different equilibrium prices. Speculators who buy in one market and sell in the other will equalize price and create value, which serves as a platform for class discussions of the decentralized role of market allocations. Email Contact: holt@virginia.edu, slaury@gsu.edu

Leuthold, Jane (1987) “A Public Goods Experiment for the Classroom,” Journal of Economic Education, 18:1 (Winter), 58-65. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, public, voluntary contributions.

Leuthold, Jane (1993) “A Free Rider Experiment for the Large Class,” Journal of Economic Education, 24:4 (Fall), 353-363. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, public, voluntary contributions. Abstract: This classroom experiment lets students divide their endowments between a private investment and a social investment with a lower individual return but a higher social return to the class as a whole. Applications to public goods and free riding behavior are discussed.

Lewis, Darrell R., and Charles C. Orvis (1971) Research in Economic Education. A Review, Bibliography and Abstracts, New York: Joint Council on Economic Education. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Lewis, Darrell, and Donald Wentworth (1971) Games and Simulations for Teaching Economics, New York: Joint Council on Economic Education. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Lloyd, J. W. (1970) “Role Playing, Collective Bargaining, and the Measurement of Attitude Change,” Journal of Economic Education, 1:2 (Spring), 104-110. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, bargaining.

Lumsden, K. G. (1970) “The Promises and Problems of Games and Simulation,” Journal of Economic Education, 1:2 (Spring), 85-90. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Mateer, G. Dirk, and Robert A. Lawson (1995) “The Thrill of Victory, the Agony of Defeat,” Public Choice, 83:3-4 (June), 305-312. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, rent seeking.

Meister, J. Patrick (1999) “`Oligopoly' - An In-Class Experiment,” Journal of Economic Education, 30:4 (Fall), 383-391. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, oligopoly, Cournot. Abstract: Students are divided into 5-firm industries and make quantitiy choices independently in each round. Payoffs are determined by a linear demand and constant marginal cost up to capacity. Hints for class discussion are provided. Email Contact: pmeister@butler.edu

Miller, R. A. (1971) “Oligopoly and Merger: A Simple Classroom Game,” Journal of Economic Education, 2:2 (Spring), 142-150. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, oligopoly, merger.

Mullin, R. David, and Gerald E. Sohan (1998) “Benefit Assessment of Classroom Experimental Economics,” USAF Academy, Discussion Paper, presented at the Fall 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, classroom games. Email Contact: mullinrd.ufeg@usafa.usaf.mil

Nelson, R. G.**, and Richard O. Beil Jr. (1994) “Pricing Strategy under Monopoly Conditions: An Experiment for the Classroom,” Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 26:1 (July), 287-298. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, monopoly.

Neral, J., and M. Ray (1995) “Teaching Tools: Experiential Learning in the Undergraduate Classroom: Two Exercises,” Economic Inquiry, 33:1 (January), 170-174. Keywords: experiments, classroom games. Email Contact: j_neral@fre.fsu.und.edu

Netusil, N. R., and M. J. Haupert (1995) “The Economics of Information: A Classroom Experiment,” Journal of Economic Education, 26:4 (Fall), 357-363. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, information, quality. Abstract: The classroom game puts students in a situation in which they must try to assess an unobserved product quality prior to purchase. Email Contact: netusil@reed.edu

Nugent, R. A. (1997) “Teaching Tools: A Pollution Rights Trading Game,” Economic Inquiry, 35:3 (July), 679-685. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, pollution rights.

Ortmann, Andreas, and D. C. Colander (1995) Experiments in Teaching and in Understanding Economics, to Accompany Economics (2nd ed.) by D. C. Colander, Chicago: Irwin. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, games, public.

Ortmann, Andreas (1997) “Teaching Tools: A Simple Principal-Agent Experiment for the Classroom,” Economic Inquiry, 35:2 (April), 443-450. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, principal-agent model.

Owings, Stephanie (1999) “Gluttony and the Free Lunch,” George Mason University, Discussion Paper. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, public, free-riding. Abstract: The exercise allows students to order resturant meals off of a menu under different assumptions about cost sharing. It stimulates class discussion of free riding in the context of the public provision of a private good. Email Contact: sowings@bellatlantic.net

Peterson, N. A. (1990) “A Rational Expectations Experiment,” Journal of Economic Education, 21:1 (Winter), 73-78. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, macro, rational expectations. Abstract: The classroom simulation is designed to promote understanding of rational expectations and the Lucas policy critique.

Ray, M. A. (1992) “Economic Education, Experimental Methods and the Structure-Conduct-Performance Paradigm,” American Economist, 36:2 (Fall), 66-71. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, industrial organization.

Seiver, D. A. (1990) “Winnemac: An Interactive Policy Simulation Game,” Regional Science Perspectives, 20:2 68-73. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Singell, Larry D. (1971) “A Note on the Use of Simulation Games in Interdisciplinary Graduate Education,” Journal of Economic Education, 3:1 (Fall), 61-63. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Sosin, K., J. Dick, and M. L. Reiser (1997) “Determinants of Achievement of Economics Concepts by Elementary School Students,” Journal of Economic Education, 28:2 (Spring), 100-121. Keywords: experiments, classroom games**, elementary school education, economic education.

Spencer, Roger W., and Donald F. Van Eynde (1986) “Experiential Learning in Economics,” Journal of Economic Education, 17:4 (Fall), 289-294. Keywords: experiments, classroom games. Abstract: The paper discusses the use of experiments in economics instruction.

Stevenson, Gelvin L. (1971) “A Simple Income Distribution Game,” Review of Radical Political Economics, 3:3 (Summer), 107-119. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Stodder, James (1998) “Experimental Moralities: Ethics in Classroom Experiments,” Journal of Economic Education, 29:2 (Spring), 127-138. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, ethics, incentives, extra credit. Abstract: The author discusses the use of extra credit points in classroom experiments, and concludes that this practice is neither ethical nor effective as is it typically implemented. He argues that is it not appropriate to base grades on performance that is affected by luck, a favorable cost or value assignment, or skills that are not related to previously assigned material. Email Contact: stodder@mstr.hgc.edu

Sulock, Joseph M. (1990) “The Free Rider and Voting Paradox `Games',” Journal of Economic Education, 21:1 (Winter), 65-69. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, public, voting paradox, free riding. Abstract: The paper discusses classroom games that illustrating free riding behavior and the voting paradox.

Swanton, D. W. (1999) “Teaching Fisher's Theory of Interest in a Simple Auction Setting,” Journal of Economic Education, 30:1 (Winter), 43-51. Keywords: experiments, classroom games**, interest, auctions.

Taylor, Kenna (1998) “The Ethics of Grading Classroom Experiments,” Rollins College, Discussion Paper, presented at the Fall 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, ethics, incentives. Email Contact: ktaylor@rollins.edu

Trapp, J. N. (1989) “A Commodity Market Simulation Games for Teaching Market Risk Management,” Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics, 21:1 (July), 139-47. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets.

Uecker, W. C. (1981) “Behavioral Accounting Research as a Source for Experimental Teaching Aids: An Example,” Accounting Review, 56:2 (April), 366-382. Keywords: experiments, classroom games.

Van Boening, Mark V. (1998) “Incentive-Based Instruction: Intermediate Microeconomics,” University of Mississippi, Discussion Paper, presented at the Fall 1998 ESA Meeting. Keywords: experiments, classroom games. Email Contact: vanboen@bus.olemiss.edu

Walbert, Mark S., and Thomas J. Bierma (1988) “The Permits Game: Conveying the Logic of Marketable Pollution Permits,” Journal of Economic Education, 19:4 (Fall), 383-389. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, pollution permits. Abstract: The classroom experiment is designed to promote understanding of how emissions permit trading can limit pollution in a cost-effective manner.

Walker, Joe (1987) “Experimental Economics in the Classroom,” Journal of Economic Education, 18:1 (Winter), 51-57.
Keywords: experiments, classroom games. Email Contact: walkerj@indiana.edu

Weidenaar, D. J. (1972) “A Classroom Experiment Demonstrating the Generation of a Market Demand Function and the Determination of Equilibrium Price,” Journal of Economic Education, 3:2 (Spring), 94-100. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets.

Wells, Donald A. (1991) “Laboratory Experiments for Undergraduate Instruction in Economics,” Journal of Economic Education, 22:3 293-300. Keywords: experiments, classroom games. Abstract: The paper discusses the use of classroom games in economics instruction. Email Contact: dwells@bpa.arizona.edu

Williams, Arlington W., and James M. Walker (1993) “Computerized Laboratory Exercises for Microeconomics Education: Three Applications Motivated by Experimental Economics,” Journal of Economic Education, 24:4 (Fall), 291-315. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, public, voluntary contributions. Email Contact: williama@indiana.edu

Williams, Robert B. (1993) “Market Exchange and Wealth Distribution: A Classroom Simulation,” Journal of Economic Education, 24:4 (Fall), 325-334. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, markets, income distribution.

Wood, William C., Sharon L. O'Hare, and Robert L. Andrews (1992) “The Stock Market Game: Classroom Use and Strategy,” Journal of Economic Education, 23:3 (Summer), 236-246. Keywords: experiments, classroom games, asset market. Abstract: The paper discusses a classroom stock market game based on using a hypothetical endowment to buy and sell stocks at prices quoted on securities exchanges. Feedback is based on the paper value of the portfolio.