The Gracchi

146  End of 3d Punic War
  Sack of Corinth in Greece

Tiberius & Gaius Sempronius Gracchus

133  Tiberius Gracchus tribune
  Land reforms proposed
  Tiberius assassinated by senators

123-2  Gaius Gracchus tribune
  Free grain distribution
  Legal & other reforms
  Citizenship for Italians proposed
121  Gaius not re-elected, leads revolt

Senatus consultum ultimum ("ultimate decree"): "Consuls to see that state is not harmed"

Marius & Sulla

112/104  Jugurthine War (vs. Jugurtha)

C. Marius (c. 157-86)

90/89   Social War (vs. Italian socii)

L. Cornelius Sulla (c. 138-78)

88  Marius tries to revoke Sulla's command
 Sulla's army marches on Rome
 Marians flee; Sulla heads back east
86  Marians return; reign of terror
 Death of Marius
83  Sulla returns from East
 constitutional reforms
79 Sulla resigns dictatorship, dies

After Sulla: The Sixties

Cn. Pompeius Magnus (= Pompey) (106-48)
M. Licinius Crassus (115-53)

73/2  Spartacus revolt crushed by Crassus
70   Crassus & Pompey consuls
  Sullan reforms revoked
67-3  Pompey beats pirates, Mithridates

M. Porcius Cato "the Younger" (95-46)

M. Tullius Cicero (106-43) L. Sergius Catilina (= Catiline) (c. 108-62) 63   Cicero consul
  Catilinarian Conspiracy
  Cicero delivers "For L. Murena"

Crisis & Civil War: 59-44

C. Julius Caesar (100-44)

60  so-called "First Triumvirate"
59 Caesar consul
 Pompey marries Julia (daughter of Caes.)
58 Caesar begins conquest of Gaul
55 Crassus & Pompey consuls
54 Julia dies
53  Crassus killed in Parthia
49  Caesar crosses Rubicon
 Pompeians flee to east
48 Battle of Pharsalus in N. Greece
 Pompey murdered in Egypt
46 Cato the Younger defeated in N. Africa

Caesar as "Perpetual Dictator"

44  Caesar assassinated (Ides of March)

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