1). Prophecy: Character within poem explicitly predicts future events

Internal fulfillment

External fulfillment Extended prophecy 2). Typology: Character/event implicitly prefigures character or event in later history

Brief examples

Large-scale examples: 3). Aetiology: Origin of contemporary phenomena recounted
  • Veiling of head for sacrifice (3. 547ff.)
  • ... veil your head in a red robe
    Against intrusions on your holy fires,
    Omen-unsettling sights amid your prayers.
    You and your company retain this ritual
    Veiling in future, let your progeny
    Hold to religious purity thereby.
  • "Troy Game" (5. 770ff.)
  • Claudian gens (7. 972ff.)
  • 4). Retrojection: Contemporary institutions projected onto past (= conscious anachronism)

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