Italy & Rome

Apennine Mts. separate N/S, E/W

Northern Italy = Cisalpine Gaul (cis- = "on this side of", vs. 'transalpine')

Central & South Italy:

Prehistoric Italy

 1) Historical Linguistics
 2) Art & Archaeology

c. 1500  "Terramare" culture
c. 900  "Villanova" culture


IE (= Indo-European) Speakers

Early Rome

?1000 IE developing into Latin
753  Rome founded (trad.)
  7 kings (last 3 Etruscan, prob. historical)
509  Republic established (trad.)
396  Defeat of Veii (Etruscan city to N.)
390  Sack of Rome by Gauls
  Expansion into Central & South Italy
367/6 Licinian Law (Lex Licinia) allows Plebeians to hold all offices

"Struggle of the Orders"

The Period of Expansion

 1) Carthage 2) Hellenistic kingdoms

280-275 War with Pyrrhus of Epirus

264-241 1st Punic War
   Primarily fought at sea

218-202 2nd Punic War
   Hannibal crosses Alps, invades Italy
   Roman Disaster at Cannae
   Scipio Africanus wins at Zama

196   War with Philip V of Macedon
   "Liberation" of Greece

168   War with Perseus (son of Philip)
   Macedonia carved into 4 states

149-147 3rd Punic War
   Scipio Aemilianus burns Carthage

146   Sack of Corinth

133   Pergamum left to Rome

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